COMPLETE SCHOOL PROJECT TOPICS & MATERIALS :
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1.1 Background of the Study
Desirable changes in learners occur through good teaching. Good teaching and learning take place when the teachers are able to convey their messages in the simplest, most convincing and practical ways to the earner using concrete objects. These concrete objects, according to Umoh-mac and Nkume (2006), are the instructional materials or teaching aids the teachers use in his teaching. The instructional materials enhance real and meaningful teaching and learning. Instructional materials can serve as a communication media that transmit information from the teacher to the learner with the intent of facilitating learning. Olaitan (2002) defined instructional material as all the practical and skill development resources that would facilitate the process of teaching and learning. Instructional materials are those devices that must be there for the teacher to us while teaching to make the lesson more meaningful, these include: textbooks, comfortable seats and well-ventilated classroom are materials needed in educational teaching and learning.
Instructional materials are needed for the implementation of any educational programme. They are inevitable because of the impact they make on teaching and learning process. There is no doubting the fact that the essence of all techniques in teaching is to expose the learner to the subjects matter. Unless adequate activities and materials are effectively employed, there is hardly a way the learner could be in contact with the subject matter. The use of instructional materials is recommended at any stage of the child’s developments and level of education. Uzoegwu (2001) opined that teachers are to employ instructional materials in their teaching in order to make sure that learning is more permanent in the mind of the learners. Instructional materials, the author further stated, provide the learners with meaningful, accurate and real experiences from the subject taught using instructional materials.
According to Okoro (2005), the assessment and evaluation of instructional materials are usually carried out in two ways: through the recommendation by teachers and through standards – prescribed by government, examination bodies etc. Teachers know when instructional materials required for their courses are adequate or inadequate. They know the extent of the deficiency and could say what must be provided if their teaching is to be effectively carried out. The government and examination bodies may also recommend certain levels of instructional materials for effective teaching of various courses. Such prescribed standards can be the basis for assessment. Where the standard is not available the teachers and the principal can give reliable information on the availability and utilization of the materials. However, the teachers information as per the utilization and availability of the materials may be more reliable because they are directly involved in the utilization of the materials, therefore assessment is any bases of measurement against a standard. Business education teachers should be involved in the generation of instructional materials available and utilized.
For the fact that business education subject are more of practical than theoretical, they should be taught practically. The Comparative Education Study and Adaptation Centre, CESAC (2009) committee on business subjects gave a very serious consideration to the use of materials and equipment for teaching and learning of the subjects. Some of the equipment and materials that CESAC considered as basic for enhancing teaching and learning of business subjects include: typewriters, stapling machines, alarm-clock, perforators, stop-watches, tape recorders, file jackets, ruled chalk board and others. The use of these materials in instructional delivery will improve students’ learning and achievement.
Visual materials have some advantages in teaching and learning processes, according to Unachukwu (2003) over 80% of what is learnt is through the sense of vision with regard to the printed materials like textbooks which are standard books which students use for particular subjects have the following advantages: textbooks help in individualizing instruction by allowing the learners to move at their own speed. It allows them to select topics of their interest and need (Ofoegbu, 2002). According to Brown, Lewis and Harcleroad (2007) textbooks are regarded as helpful in improving the teacher skills (especially through teachers’ manual and notes), and in suggesting ways to handle instructional problems, its disadvantages are its expensive and time consume. Going by the above therefore, one can see clearly the importance of instructional materials and that lack of it could lead to poor performance, poor motivation of students which tends to make them loose interest in business education subject. In the light of the above, this study focused on assessment of utilization of instructional materials for teaching and learning of Business Education Subject in Secondary School in Enugu Education Zone of Enugu State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The Nigerian national curriculum for secondary schools (2007) recognized Business subjects as one of the basic subjects which shall be taught to students to enable them acquire prevocational skills for further knowledge and skills. The subject provides practical skills for occupational purposes by enabling students to acquire basic knowledge of business skills, develop basic skills in office occupation and for personal use. Therefore, the subject prepares students for further training in business subjects and provides orientation to entrant to a life of work. One of the major requirements for realizing the lofty goals of the National Policy on education through Basic education is the effective teaching and learning of the subject components. This requires that teachers have knowledge, understanding and mastery of the subject matter on one hand and the pedagogical skills of transmitting such knowledge and skills to their students.
Unfortunately the present states of instructional materials are nothing to write home about, some of these instructional materials are obsolete that is not matching with the current development, the little ones available are not utilized because some materials lose their component to make it functional. The teachers having attended difference schools and colleges so they posses difference experiences and knowledge, so invariably have direct effect on the utilization of the materials in teaching and learning of business education subjects in secondary schools this is projected to student in Enugu State.
According to Obi (2008) observed that many schools are unable to teach business education subject due to inadequate business education teachers and equipment. The poor performance of students in business education subject as lamented by Odoh (2001) that their deterioration in students’ achievement must have been due to the non- utilization of instructional materials in classroom, therefore it become necessary the assessment of the role of motivational strategies in the approach of teaching business studies in secondary schools in Enugu education zone of Enugu State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The major purpose of this study is to assess the role of motivational strategies in the approach of teaching business studies in secondary schools in Enugu education zone of Enugu State. Specifically, the study seeks to assess the:
- Determine the mean achievement score of students taught business studies with achievement motivational instructional approach and those taught with traditional approach.
Praise, rewards and privileges motivates students to learn business studies.
Teachers’ understanding and handling of students’ differences motivates them to learn business studies.
Teamwork in problem solving motivates students to learn business studies.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;
- What is the mean achievement score of students taught business studies with achievement motivational instructional approach and those taught with traditional approach?
Does Praise, rewards and privileges motivate students to learn business studies?
Does Teachers’ understanding and handling of students’ differences motivate them to learn business studies?
Does Teamwork in problem solving motivate students to learn business studies?
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