ABSTRACT Computer software is used extensively to increase productivity and reduce man‟s hours of labour. This work presents the development of a solids control software (SOLCON) which is designed for real time mud system management and quick performance of routine rig computations: determination of total solids and low gravity solids content; mud property and density […]
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List of Petroleum engineering project topics and materials, Phd Bsc hnd Ond, ND, Petroleum engineering project topics and materials, project topics in Petroleum engineering project topics and materials with available work for bsc hnd ond Petroleum engineering students.| Petroleum engineering project topics and materials project topics, Click here to Find other Departments
ABSTRACT Gas condensate reservoirs are single phase at the initial condition. It changes to multiphase when the reservoir conditions are located between the critical point and the cricondentherm of the reservoir in the phase envelope. This makes it unique to providing a reliable source of energy for human usage. The objective of this study is […]
ABSTRACT This research work mainly investigates the development and the behavior of cones (both water and gas cones) in oil reservoirs supported by strong aquifer, and from which analytical correlations are developed for quick engineering estimates of the time for water/gas cones to break into the perforations of the producing wells. The studies treated the […]
ABSTRACT Proper management of thin oil rim reservoirs is required to maximize recovery and minimizes coning tendencies. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of reservoir and fluid properties on coning tendencies in thin oil rim reservoirs and to develop numerical correlations to predict oil recovery and water break through time for […]
ABSTRACT Oil deposits are often found in association with a communicating gas or water zone. The production of the oil often leads to the coning of water or gas. This dynamic interaction can be captured by a properly detailed reservoir simulation, which unfortunately may not always be practical. To brigde the gap, researchers over the […]
ABSTRACT The research is aimed at the understanding of the various diagnostic plots for the analysis of water production that are available as well as the application of these methods in a case study. It also aimed at the establishment of a work flow for the evaluation of water production mechanisms. A workflow was developed […]
ABSTRACT During drilling operations, special attention must be given to wellbore hydraulics to ensure functional, safe, economic, and environmentally responsible delivery of the well. The Hydraulics system shares common purposes with the drilling fluid, it helps to control subsurface pressures, remove cuttings from the well, clean the bit, size the pump, increase the rate of […]
ABSTRACT Maximum production from an oil well can be achieved through proper selection of tubing size. The selection of optimum tubing size must be evaluated when completing a well in any type of reservoir especially solution gas drive reservoir since there is likelihood of producing more gas as the reservoir pressure declines. The most widely […]
A new method for analysing productivity index (PI) on vertical wells is the main objective of this study. Well performance is often measured in terms of the well’s productivity which is dependent on a number of factors such as the reservoir’s configuration, the type of completion, petrophysical and fluid properties, formation damage, etc. The effect of partial completion is the main focus of making the productivity index analysis since almost all vertical wells are partially completed due to the reasons of water coning or gas cap issue, etc. It is also very expensive to fully complete a well especially when the formation thickness is so large.
Pressure behaviour solutions for both closed boundary and constant pressure boundary have been obtained, taking into consideration the effect of partial completion.
Productivity of a well is usually evaluated on the long time performance behaviour, thus the pseudo-steady state (late time) approach has been employed for calculation of the productivity index.
Several key factors have been tested on productivity index such as pseudo skin, shape factors, penetration ratio, reservoir drainage area and etc. The effects of these factors have been analysed on PI. Theoretical data were used in carrying out the analysis with results indicating that, productivity index increases with increasing completion interval and vice versa, whiles pressure drop due to skin as a result of restricted entry to fluid flow increases tremendously with decreasing completion interval.
Shape factors of various well positions in bounded reservoirs were computed and compared with results obtained by Dietz, and Babu and Odeh.
1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENT
Well productivity is one of the major concerns in oil field development, and provides the means for oil field development strategy. Sometimes, well performance is measured in terms of productivity index. In order to arrive at the economic feasibility of drilling a well, petroleum engineers require proven and reliable methods to estimate the expected productivity of that well. Well productivity is often evaluated using the productivity index, defined as the production rate per unit pressure drawdown. Petroleum engineers often relate the well productivity evaluation to the long-time performance behaviour of a well, that is, the behaviour during pseudo-steady-state or/and steady-state flow of a closed system or/and constant pressure system respectively.
The long-term productivity of oil wells is influenced by many factors. Among these factors are petrophysical properties, fluid properties, degree of formation damage and/or stimulation, well geometry, well completions, number of fluid phases, and flow-velocity type (Darcy, non-Darcy) (Yildiz, 2003).
Depending upon the type of wellbore completion configuration, it is possible to have radial, spherical or hemispherical flow near the wellbore. A well with a limited perforated interval (partial completion) could result in spherical flow in the vicinity of the perforations as depicted in fig. 2.1. A well which only partially penetrates the pay zone, could result in hemispherical flow. These conditions could arise where coning of bottom water or gas cap becomes a serious issue (Ahmed, 2005). Figures 3.1 and 3.2 respectively depict the true picture of radial and spherical flow behaviour in a partially completed vertical well.
Partial completion is the completion of or flow from less than the entire producing interval. This situation causes a near-well flow constriction that result in a positive skin effect in a well-test analysis. The net result of partial completion yields extra pressure drop in the near wellbore region and reduces the well productivity.
The present analytical method of evaluating productivity index in vertical wells with partial completion does not account for the effect of pressure drop due to partial completion.
The purpose of this study is to develop analytical model for evaluating productivity index (P.I) of vertical wells with partial completion, where the effect of pressure drop due to partial completion is taken into account and compare results with conventional methods.
The partial differential equations were solved for both no-flow boundary and constant pressure boundary systems in Laplace and Fourier Transform domains before inversion to real time domain.
The main objectives of this work are to:
· Develop analytical model for pressure behaviour in closed and constant pressure boundary systems
· Develop an analytical model for evaluating productivity index of vertical wells with partial completion for both closed-boundary and constant pressure boundary systems taking into account the effect of pressure drop due to partial completion
· Calculate shape factors and compare with the existing ones and
· Investigate the factors and parameters that influence or control productivity index.
The partial form of the diffusivity equation in dimensionless terms is solved for both closed system and constant pressure boundary case employing Laplace and Fourier transforms. Gringarten and Ramey’s source functions (1974) for closed and bottom water drive (mixed boundaries system) have been used in conjunction with Babu and Odeh’s approach (1989) for obtaining pressure drawdown in terms of average reservoir pressure. Finally new productivity index equations are generated for both closed system and bottom water drive of a vertical well with partial completion….
ABSTRACT New sources of energy should be found to relieve the high demand of energy. Even though heavy oil and bitumen are difficult to produce due to their high viscosity which can be reduced by heating, with increased oil price, the production of these heavy oils are seen viable thus the need for a model […]
ABSTRACT Despite its numerous benefits the search and production of crude oil poses a lot of dangers to the environment. Among these include land, water and air pollution. Prominent among the major sources of E&P waste is drilling operations which form the second largest source of waste after production activities. The major drilling wastes are […]
ABSTRACT Determination of optimal well locations for infill drilling is a challenging task because engineering and geologic variables affecting reservoir performance are often nonlinearly correlated and have some degree of uncertainty attached to them. Numerical models which are the basis of well placement decisions rely on data that are uncertain, which in turn translate to […]
ABSTRACT This study presents an investigation of the hydrodynamics behaviour of slug flow in an inclined (80 degree inclination) and 67 mm internal diameter pipe. The study provides a more rudimentary explanation into the physical phenomenon that controls slug flows behaviour and the way these parameters behave under variable flow conditions. Various correlations for determining […]
ABSTRACT This research work mainly investigates the implication of void prediction in the estimation of total pressure gradient in vertical pipes for multiphase flow systems. Experimental data was collected for a multiphase flow system with silicone oil and air as the liquid and gas phases. The void fraction prediction was carried out using Microsoft Excel. […]
ABSTRACT One of the major challenges in reservoir engineering is the accurate description of the reservoir. This description is essential in all aspects of petroleum engineering, and is typically achieved through reservoir characterization by integrating various kinds of information obtained from the reservoir. One reliable source of reservoir information is well testing. Analysis of well […]
ABSTRACT The concurrent flow of gas/liquid in pipes poses a great challenge due to the difficulty associated with the flow of fluid. The flow is characterized by the existence of flow regimes which can be identified by the geometrical arrangement of the phases in a pipe, with Churn flow being the least understood flow pattern […]
ABSTRACT The need to re-develop one of the Brown fields located in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria was necessitated by the fact that there are still three undeveloped reservoirs in the field.A total of six stacked reservoirs, A100 to A600 (all oil bearing with associated gas) were penetrated between 8552 ftss and 10652 ftss […]
ABSTRACT Formation damage is an undesirable operational and economic problem that can occur in many phases of field development including drilling, completion, workover, production, stimulation, waterflooding and enhanced oil recovery. In fact, it is among the major causes of a well productivity reduction in petroleum reservoirs. Proper understanding of the factors causing these damages is […]
ABSTRACT Nigeria is endowed with huge proven gas reserves estimated to be 184 trillion cubic feet (Tcf). It ranks as the 7th holder of natural gas reserves in the world, and the largest in Africa. Nigeria also flares more natural gas than any other country; it accounts for 12.5% of the world‟s annual gas flared and […]
ABSTRACT The production of formation sand is a problem associated with most oil deposits in the world. Major Sand production effects affect safety, well or field economics and continuous production. This has prompted the continued search for solutions to mitigate sand production in the oil and gas industry over time. The methodology often employed is […]
ABSTRACT As the demand for petroleum resources increases, drilling of oil and gas wells are often carried out in challenging and hostile environments. Among the top ten drilling challenges facing the oil and gas industry today is the problem of lost circulation. Major progress has been made to understand this problem and how to combat […]
ABSTRACT Hydraulic fracturing has been an effective technique to stimulate damaged wells or wells producing from low-permeability formation. It has been established that the orientation of a hydraulic fracture is perpendicular to the direction of the least principal stress in the formation. Thus, most pressure transient analysis techniques are based on the assumption that the […]
ABSTRACT The Niger Delta is Nigeria’s and Africa’s most prol ific producing basin and has some untapped oil resources because of their marginality. The development of marginal oil field in Nigeria has now become an important strategic issue. This is due to the vast availability of these fields scattered all over the Niger Delta. The […]
ABSTRACT Huge amount of hydrocarbon in place is left unrecovered. Integrated reservoir management, in addition to the use of new technologies improves hydrocarbon recovery. Intelligent completion is one of the technologies which enhance reservoir management thereby improving the hydrocarbon recovery.This work presents a review of intelligent completion technology, guidelines to evaluate the decision whether or […]
ABSTRACT Appropriate selection of rheological models is important for hydraulic calculations of pressure loss prediction and hole cleaning efficiency of drilling fluids. Power law, Bingham-Plastic Herschel-Bulkley models are the conventional fluid models used in the oilfield. However, there are other models that have been proposed in literature which are under / or not utilized in […]