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SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ALKYLATED ISOCYANATE DERIVATIVES OF [Pt2(µ-S)2(PPh3)4]

CHAPTER ONE

 Introduction

1.1      Background of Study

             Investigation of the chemistry of platinum and sulphur has attracted considerable attention in recent years due to the broad applications of the two elements and their compounds, in biological systems1, applied catalysis2,3 and to the chemistry of novel molecular systems4. Other main areas of application are in the design of homo- and hetero-polynuclear  clusters5, fine wires6,7, jewellery, antitumor drugs8, the self-assembly of supramolecular structures, and the photophysical properties of new luminescent and mesogenic phases9. Platinum, however has six naturally occurring isotopes, 190Pt, 192Pt, 194Pt, 195Pt, 196Pt and 198Pt with a maximum oxidation state of +6, the oxidation states of +2 and +4 being the most  stable10,11 and the rare odd number form of +1 and +3 oxidation states are found in dinuclear Pt-Pt bonded complexes12.

Sulphur also exhibits an important chemical properties especially as a versatile coordinating ligand which is illustrated by its ability to catenate forming polysulfide ligands (Sn2) with n ranging from 1 to 8. It also has the ability to expand its coordination from terminal groups example ([Mo2S10]2-)13, to μ-sulfido group e.g. [Pt2(l-S)2(PPh3)4]14 and to an encapsulated form e.g. [Rh17(S)2(CO)32]3-  consisting of a S-Rh-S moiety in the cavity of a rhodium-carbonyl cluster15,. The coordination chemistry of sulfur ligands has been reviewed and has shown a unique variety of structure in its reactions with most transition metals in different oxidation states16.

The outstanding ability of sulphur to bind to heavy metals is not only evidenced by the enormous variety of the metal sulfide minerals found in nature but also by the appearance of platinum group metals in mineral ores different from the naturally occurring ores17,18. examples are Cooperite (Pt0.6Pd0.3Ni0.1S)17,18, and Braggite (Pt0.38Pd0.50 Ni0.10S1.02)17.

The development of platinum sulfide complexes has received much less attention for many years after the first platinum-sulfur complex, (NH4)2[Pt(η2-S5)3], was isolated in 190319 . However the main features in the field of platinum(II)sulfur chemistry was established by Chatt and Mingos in 1970, who obtained several complexes of various nuclearities and structures20. Among them,  [Pt2(μ-S)2(PMe2Ph)4] followed by [Pt2(μ-S)2(PPh3)4]14 {bis(μ-sulfido)tetrakis (triphenylphosphine) diplatinum (II)} reported by Ugo et al14 a year later,  constitutes the first examples  of platinum(II)sulphide complexes containing the  {Pt2(μ-S)2} core21. The compound is a fine orange powder, insoluble in hydrocarbon solvents and water but sparingly soluble in methanol. It is soluble by reaction with mild alkylating agents, e.g CH2Cl2, CH3Cl which indicates the high nucleophilicity of the sulfide centres.

The exceptional nucleophilicity of the sulfido ligands in {Pt2(μ-S)2} core accounts for their ability to act as  potent metalloligands towards a diverse range of metal centres, including main group21-23and transition metals23-28, as well as the actinide uranium9 and also enhances the development of homo-, hetero- and inter-metallic sulfide complexes23 (Scheme 1.1). The advancement in the chemistry of [Pt2(μ-S)2(PPh3)4] and the other sulfide-bridged complexes with the {Pt2(μ-S)2} core, as well as the improvement made in their synthesis, structures, and reactivity have been exceptionally reviewed by Fong and Hor,  who have made important contributions to this field23. However, the overall ability of the sulfido ligands in the {Pt2(μ-S)2} core to extend their coordination mode from μ-S to μ3-S give rise to the behaviour of [Pt2(μ-S)2(PPh3)4]14  as building blocks for the synthesis of multi-metallic sulfide bridged aggregates.  Scheme 1.0 shows the different formation of multi-metallic aggregates23,25 . It involves the bridging of the two sulfur atoms in a molecule of [Pt2(μ-S)2(PPh3)4] by a metal fragment.

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