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The purpose of this study was to find out the causes and solution of examination malpractice in Enugu state College of Education (technical) Enugu.
In the study five research questions were formulated which are
- the major causes of examination malpractice
- Forms of examination malpractice
- To what extent to parents, lecturers and examination body contributes to examination malpractice.
- Consequences of examination malpractice
- Solution of examination malpractice
Review of literature was also done which gave the researchers much insight into what was already done in the area and provided tem with a sound framework.
A sample of 180 respondents were used to provide data for the study. The instrument used for data collection where questionnaire with stratified items and a four point responses format.
The result of the study indicated that causes of examination malpractice took root from the parents, lectures and examination body. The researchers believe that this could stop by providing qualified lecturers and capable examination bodies in the state.
1.1 Background of the Study
According to Ejili and Anyanwu 2006, the words “education comes from two Latin words “Educare and educate. Educate means to lead to , that is leading a learner from one state of knowledge to a better state of knowledge. “educare” means to bring up or rear, hat is moulding a learner towards the development of his/her innate potentials. However, various educators and commentators see the term education differently. The opinions of the various scholars are influenced by their experiences and philosophical perceptions of life.
Ejili and Anyanwu (2006) quoting plato (427-347) as one of the early philosophers that describes educations as that training which is given by suitable habits to the first instincts of virtue in children when pleasure and pain are rightly implanted to national souls. The particular training in respect of pleasure and pain, which lead you to hate and love what you ought to hate and love and called educations. Here platos submission means that education I a means of developing the character of the learner.
There are basically two ways of acquiring education: they include the following
- Informal education
- formal education
According to Ejili and Anyanwu (2006) describes informal education- as preliterate education. It is a type of learning process where there is no organizational structure set in place for the purpose of teaching and leaning. It is the first leaning process available in any society where by the young are made to learn the way of life the society. Put simply, it is the earliest form o education. The family or home provides this form of education.
- Formal education: According to Ejili and anyanwu (2006) Formal education this is also called literally or schooling type of education in Nigeria, the Moslem and Christian missionaries introduced this form of education in 14th and 19th centuries respectively. This from of education takes place in an organization educational setting with planned curriculum, teacher, learners, educational administrators, administrative blocks, classroom and other instructional materials which facilitate teaching and learning.
The Enugu state college of Education (technical was established by the Enugu state House of Assembly Law No. 2 of 2006 of 11th April 2006 sequel to this, the state government directed the vacation of independent layout, to house the new college. It also directed the closure of the school of science and vocational teacher Education (SSVTE) of the IMT and transfer of all its staff and students to form the nucleus of the new college.
It is true that nation, can rise above the quality of education provided for her citizen and since the advent of western education in Nigeria examinations have been the major instrument used for the evaluation of the learners (or students achievement) it is a means of assessing the quality and quantity or performance that an individual has accumulated at the end of a teaching process which may spread over a period of seventeen weeks.
According to Adekate (1993), examinations are instruments used for the assessment of individual’s skills and knowledge, content both in general and specific areas of studies and over all academic achievements.
To Liman, as cited by Arifayan (2004), examination is broad perspective is an instrument for testing, assessing, evaluation and accreditation. Thus in schools, examinations as a protent instrument for judgement of knowledge or competence. On her own part, Alutu (2005) simply defined examinations as a process of measuring how much knowledge a student in an institution of learning has acquired after exposing him/her to definite course of instruction. Examination also serve as a menas of selecting the best candidates for various purposes, students are admitted into different institution of learning on the basis of their scores in the stipulated qualifying examinations. More over, promotion of students within the institution/school is based on passing the examinations sets for that purpose. In addition, examination helps the lecturers/teachers to adjust or change his instructional strategies in the process of teaching and learning in the school system. If the students performance in examination is encouraging, then it indicates that the teachers/ lecturers method of teaching are appropriate and efficient.
From the above, it can be seen that success in examination serves as a good motivator for students, teachers, school administrators, and employers of labour on the otherl hand, failure to perform successfully in examination demoralizes all and sundry, especially students. It is the crave to succeed and avoid frustration and or any embarrassment associated with failure that makes students engages in examination malpractices which has threatened the very foundation of our educational system. Examination malpractice is constructed as irregularities, violation of or infringements on examinations rules and regulations before during or after the conduct of examination (2005/2006) students handbook of information, Auchi polytechnic, Auchi.
Alutu (2005) defines examination malpractice as involving a deliberate act of wrong doing, contrary to official examination rules, and is designed to place a candidate at on un affair advantage. Ahmed citied by Aripayan (2004) refers malpractice as any act of wrong doing or neglect that contravenes the rules of acceptable practice before during and after an examination by anybody in any way which is tantamount to malpractice such act could be carried our by the candidate/student, the examination officials, such as an examiner/lecturer, invigilator, supervisor etc. or any other person not associated directly with the examination either individually or with the consent and connivance of either or all of the parties. Such act may be carried out before, during or after the examination with the sole aim of assisting the candidate/student through fraudulent means to obtain grades over and above his/her level of achievement or mastery.
Examination malpractice has graduated from mere stretching of the neck (giraffing) to see what another candidate is writing during exam or consulting unauthorized notes or books inside or outside the examination hall to such sophisticated methods a the use of micro-computer, mobile phones and guns to initiate those concerned with the administration of examination for instance, there may be leakage of examination questions (expol by any of the parties who are authorized or unauthorized to handle questions and those who may be involved in the processing of examination papers. This prepares the fertile ground for copying during the examination. This group of students prepares with the desire to transcribe the materials into the answer sheets. Some write examination information on different parts of their bodies, clothes, walls blackboard, desks at the venue of the examination and recopy same during their examinations questions copy the expected answers on pieces of paper and recopy them during examination if luck favours them. There was a case of an engineering student from Calabar polytechnic, caught copying from a foolscap paper which he smuggled into the examination hall. He was almost choked to death as he was swallowing it in an attempt to destroy the evidences (News watch July, 1991).
Researchers on examination malpractice had argued and contributed to the basic factors responsible for examination malpractice in Nigeria, opinion and facts are gathered for this argument.
Aina (1991) and Aliyu et al (1991) agreed in their various submissions that the desire to pass at all cost is responsible for examination malpractice. The fact remain that Nigerian orientation on education is certificate and high-grade intensiveness, stuck parents school management tend to push harder on wards to get the certificate and good-grade by all “means” to secure employment, others prefer to manipulate to be admitted in a choicest higher institution(s). all this factors according to Denga (1993) are boiled down to three factors of : psychological, Environmental, intelligence.
Finally, various methods of checking examination malpractice have been advocated by different authors and educationists. Therefore lecturers should in their efforts search the students thoroughly before entering into the examination halls the number o invigilators should be increased in the exam halls. The use of continuous assessment should be practice correctly.
Meanwhile, the level of awareness in Nigeria today demands that the legal obligations or duties of the lecturers, their rights and priviledges should be safe guarded in the maintenance of examination malpractice in our schools also it should be entrenched in Nigeria constitution, so as to avoid involving lecturers into legal battle or even subjected them to court actions.
1.2 Statement of the Problems
There have been a general and cry from the public about the increasing rate of examination malpractices problems in our institution in Nigeria. The enforcement of sanity by the people concerned as a means of creating order to an atmosphere which is conducive to examination, free from unnecessary interruptions and disturbance has been turned to be a hatching ground for lawlessness. As professor Babs Fanfunwa introduced the 6-3-3-4 system of education with the best intention. Today, as a result of the cazy illusion attached to the worthless paper issued in Nigerian schools called certificates the -3-3 aspect of the system has been pacify killed. What is left behind is 6-4, a practice where a student leaves secondary and transfers to the tertiary school irrespective of his/her competence to execute and display the cognitive psychomotor and affective responsibility befitting a tertiary level students.
Therefore lecturer must under the task of continuous assessment seriously and intelligently, for it has a direct relation to academic standard for examples, is a school where continuous assessment is not use properly, examination malpractice will be high. When student learn how to depend on what his/her reads for exams while in school, they may retain this throughout life. Some of these problems are as follows: absenteeism, lateness, to lecture increased rate of discipline like students insulting their lecturers.
All the above mentioned reasons prompted the researcher to look for the reasons and the solution fo the problem in our institution with these relevant questions. What are the causes of examination malpractice in schools?
What are the problems of examination malpractice that lecturers encountered in schools? How do parents react when their children are being punished at school for examination malpractice?
How far is the society affected by the increasing rae o examination malpractice. How do lecturers control examination malpractice in school?
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of the study is to find our the causes and solution of examination malpractices in Enugu state college of education technical Enugu state. Specifically the study was initiated to investigate the major causes of examination malpractices.
Thirdly, what form do student takes in examination malpractice,
To determine the extent to which student/lecturers responsible for the high incidence of examination malpractice.
To ascertain how the school authority help in examination malpractice and even how the society at large encourage examination malpractice.
To find the solution of examination malpractice, finally, it is hoped that the study will provide necessary information to the authority of Enugu state college of Education (technical) Enugu, and National Board for Technical Education (NBTE).
1.4 The Significance of the Study
The close look into the study of causes and solution of examination malpractice is of immense benefits. This is because examination malpractice poses a greater threat to Enugu state college of Education (Technical) and the society.
This study would be exposing some of the causes of examination malpractice in general.
The awareness of these problems and their possible solutions will enhance good behaviour, accurate result and thrit free nation. It will also enhance good educational background between the student/lecturers, parents, the community and the entire society in reformation of examination malpractice in our schools.
1.5 Scope of the Study
The study was to identify the cause and solution of examination malpractices in Enugu state College of education (technical) Enugu) state.
1.6 Research Questions
To guide the course of this study the following research question were raised.
- What are the major causes of examination malpractice in Enugu state college of Education (Technical) Enugu state?
- What are the forms of examination malpractice?
- To what extent do parents, lecturers and examination body contribution to examination malpractice?
- What are the consequences of examination malpractice?
- What are the solution of examination malpractice in Enugu state college of Education (technical)?
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The focus of the study is on causes and solutions of examination malpractice in enugu, a survey of the College of education (technical) enugu.
These means the study intends to cover the entire College of education (technical) enugu in regards to the different faculties within 2007-2011. And sampling of respondent will be done from selected faculties/departments.
Such respondents will be used for the research/survey of which inference will drawn for the entire University Community.
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
A research work like this will encounter challenges ranging from gathering of data/information from with students/staff because the survey is within the community of the College of education (technical) enugu where the researcher is also a student.
Also enough time and logistic in terms of money will be required being the research a part-time student put this work together cumbersome, also enough resources will be required to cover the entire community of the College of education (technical) enugu.
Since the study covers, College of education (technical) enugu with large population of both students and staff which can not be easily covered by the researcher, necessary arrangement was done to use the right sampling technique to sample a size which can be conveniently covered by the researcher. Hence, the researcher looked into the existing faculties and by using stratified sampling technique a sample of five (5) faculties will be done, and from the facilities department each were selected of which a sampling technique. A sample of 100 respondents was made.
Collection of data was through personal interview with key officials of the selected faculties/department of the University, a questionnaire was done to cover the key uses as well as the entire respondents.
Data analyses was by extraction of information from the questionnaire, which will be put into tables in relation with responses, frequency and simple percentage. This tables was analyzed to drawn conclusion as well as test the hypotheses.
1.10 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Examination – Examination is a formal written, spoken or practical test, especially at school or college to see how much a person know about a subject or what a person can do with the skills acquired for a specified period. (Hornby, 1995:504).
In this research work refers is made to examinations conducted in the Universities as a yardstick for assessment in semesters test. It is the most practical way of assessment in education. Also it is an evaluation of scholastic achievement for certification at the end of the course. (Balogun, 1999:4).
Examination Malpractice – Examination malpractice is any irregular behavior exhibited by a candidate or anybody charged with the conduct of examination before, during or after the examination that contravenes the rules and regulations governing the conduct of such examination (Hornby A.S, 1995:895).
Legislations – Legislations is a law or set of laws passed by a parliament that is governing a body or set of bodies. (Hornby 1995:844). In this research legislation means the laws rules and regulations set by the government, agencies etc that is governing their examination, example are like the Decree 20 of 1984 or the repeal examination malpractice Act of 1999. This rule states the offences and punishment accrued to an offender of examination malpractice.
Bandwagon Effects – Is two words put together to form a single word.
Bad means something or some one that is not pleasant or enjoyable, or likely to cause major problems or of low quality.
Wagon is a vehicle with four wheels that is usually pulled by horses or used for carrying load etc (Hornby, 1995; 95).
In this research, bad wagon effects mean the likely cause major problem in a chain reaction that reoccur yearly.
Certificates – Certificate is an official document proving that you have completed a course of study or passed a examination. It can also be an official document stating that you have passed an examination successfully, complete a course, or achieved the necessary qualifications to work in a particular profession. (Hornby, 1995:203).
Since this research discusses examination malpractices, certification therefore, look at the wordiness of our certificate in an atmosphere of examination malpractices. (Hornby 1995).
Assessment – Is the process of making a judgement or forming an opinion, after considering something or someone carefully. It means examination assess, the student weather they have carefully passed the examination, or evaluate the mode and medium of their performances during, and after the examination. (Hornby, 1995:75).
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