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1.1 Background of the Study
Rural development in the world generally and in the third world in particular has assumed the front-burner status since early eighties because governments have realized that except given the seriousness it deserves and closing the gap between theory and practice in this area, the goals of achieving accelerated national development especially at the rural level which is the grassroots base, will remain elusive at least in the third world. One major reason for this assertion is that taking Nigeria as an example, the bulk of the population lives in the rural areas, which is the grassroots where development is most desirous. Apart from this lopsided population ratio, the bulk of the rural areas are poor and hardly live above the poverty line of one American dollar per day. More importantly, development is measured mostly on the scale of per capita income of nations, which is the ratio of the gross national income to entire population. Therefore, the development of rural areas signals to a greater extent the level of national development and the situation of the nations in the development ladder.
Buttressing this assertion, Idode (1989), citing a portion of the 1975-80 Nigeria National Development Plan stated that, it is necessary to recognize that about 70% of the Nigerian population live in the rural areas and have benefited relatively little from the rapid economic growth of the past few years. The improvement in the welfare of the average Nigerian will therefore require substantial increase in rural income. Accordingly, in the allocation of scarce resources, in the course of plan implementation, priority will be given to programmes and projects directly benefiting the rural population, particularly projects to increase the income of small holder farmers and to improve the economic and social infrastructure to the rural area. There is therefore, reason to believe that the question of how to accelerate expansion in the agricultural sector and how best to improve welfare for the masses of the people in the rural areas is now the focus of considerable government attention. It is however sad to observe that from independence to date, there has been a great disparity between successive government pronouncements and the establishment of various development agencies towards attaining rural development and the actual results of implementation efforts. In recent years, the world’s rapid industrialization has been given special attention by scholars and policy makers. This attention was because of the impact of industrialization on environmental, economic and social activities (David, 2005). These activities are largely due to the process by which materials and energy are being consumed by industries and are transformed into usable products and waste, (Stewart, 1992).
Industrialization is associated with economic development and has been a hallmark of modernization and national economic power, (Brundtland, 2007). It is no accident therefore, that most developing nations have made industrialization a national priority. Industrialization is an essential aspect of long-run development in that most nations that have achieved socio-economic development, though with some attendant environmental consequences, have also seen structural transformation from primary production towards industrialization, (Aneta, 2006).
Keeping the pace of such development to meet the requirement of the present without jeopardising the needs of the future, is sustainable development, (Classzone, 2007). Sustainable development can be seen as a complex, multi-dimensional and an interdependent process which has to be approached from an international, interdisciplinary and dynamic perspective. Sustainable development may not be achieved in a hegemonic and unipolar world in which everything is commoditized and market driven. It could be a humanistic approach such as an alternative framework for poverty eradication which is a major means to ensuring development, (Famade, 2007). Sustainable development is now widely accepted as resting on 3 pillars of the sustainability of economic growth, social development and environmental protection (UNIDO, 2004). Countries like Britain, India and others from Asia and the Pacific, have also accepted this concept which is also essentials of industrialization.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In Nigeria, industrialization brought a lot of positive effects in terms of job creation, technological advancement and rise in the standard of living. It however also brought about unhealthy working conditions and water pollution, (Adejugbe, 2004). These negative effects could inhibit both industrialization and sustainable development. We also recorded a long-term impact of industrialization resulting to environmental changes and exploitation of natural resources, (Famade, 2007). The extensive exploitation of natural resources could lead to the depletion of such resources thereby threatening industrialization and sustainable development. In light of the above the researcher intends to investigate the impact of rural industrialization as an agent for national development.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to ascertain the effect of rural industrialization as an agent for national development, but to aid the completion of the study, the researcher intends to achieve the following specific objectives:
i. To ascertain the effect of rural industrialization in national development.
ii. To ascertain the relationship between rural industrialization and national development.
iii. To evaluate the impact of rural development on economic growth in Nigeria.
iv. To proffer suggested solution to the identified problem.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
i. What is the effect of rural industrialization in national development?
ii. Is there a relationship between rural industrialization and national development?
iii. What is the impact of rural development on economic growth in Nigeria?
iv. Are there possible solutions to the identified problems?
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
To aid the completion of the study, the following research hypotheses was formulated by the researcher:
Ho: Rural industrialization has no significant effect in national development.
Hi: Rural industrialization has a significant effect in national development.
Ho: There is no significant relationship between rural industrialization and economic development in Nigeria.
Hi: There is a significant relationship between rural industrialization and economic development in Nigeria.
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
It is believed that at the completion of the study, the findings will be of great importance to local government and investors; as the study seek to seek to elaborate on the importance of rural industrialization and it role in national development, the study will also be of importance to investors and potential investors as the study seek to explore the importance and advantages of investing in the rural communities. The study will also be beneficial to researchers who intends to embark on study in similar topic as the study will serve as a guide to their study. Finally, the study will be beneficial to academia’s students and the general public.
1.7 SCOPE AND LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The scope of the study covers rural industrialization as an agent for national development, but in the cause of the study, there were some factors which limited the scope of the study which was out of the researchers control:
(a) Availability of research material: The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study.
(b) Time: The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
(c) Finance: The finance available for the research work does not allow for wider coverage as resources are very limited as the researcher has other academic bills to cover.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Rural: A rural area or countryside is a geographic area that is located outside towns and cities. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services defines the word “rural” as encompassing “all population, housing, and territory not included within an urban area. Whatever is not urban is considered rural.
Industrialization: Industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organization of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing
Development: The process of developing or being developed.
1.9 ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (background of the study), statement of the problem, objectives of the study, research questions, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope of the study etc. Chapter two being the review of the related literature presents the theoretical framework, conceptual framework and other areas concerning the subject matter. Chapter three is a research methodology covers deals on the research design and methods adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
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