The purpose of this study was to investigate problem and prospect of pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State four research questions formulated and analyzed. The respondents were made up of pig farmers Ovia North East Local Government Area. All the respondents were randomly selected from the three main markets in Ovia North East Local Government Area and seven. One set of instrument was used in collecting data for the study i.e. questionnaires. The data collected from the respondents were analyzed using simple percentages from the analysis of data, the following were the findings. Transportation is one of the problem of pig farming and Finance contribute one of the major problem.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The pig is one of the oldest domesticated animals. Majority of the breeds we now know are descended from the Eurasian Wild Boar (Sus scrofa). Archaeological evidence from the Middle East indicates domestication of the pig occurs as early as 9,000 years ago while most livestock where utilized initially by nomadic peoples, swine are more indicative of a settled farming community. Pigs have become vital to the economy in parts of the world. (Ayivor, and Hellins, 2002).
Piggery is another aspect of farming in Nigeria that is making smart investors huge money on daily basis. If you are into this pig farming, you sure wouldn’t lack money again for the rest of your life. The reason is because Pig meet is in high demand in Nigeria and sells very fast in the market. Another reason is that Pig reproduce in large number and grows very fast. A single pig gives birth to as much as 15 piglets at a time, making it one of the most reproducing mammal in the world. Baby pigs is known as shoat, farrow or piglet. Male pigs are referred to as the boar while females are sows. As a group they are called a herd or drove. Despite the huge profitability of Piggery, many Nigerian are still overlooking this goldmine because of ignorance of how it works. While some don’t just get the fact that it is a big business – many who engage in it do it as part time business but if you can engage in this business fully, you are sure going to smile to the bank very soon.
A fully grown Pig goes for as high as N30, 000 depending on the weight. Now Imagine for a year you are able to rear hundred to maturity, you will be making N3 Million from the sales. If you can take it higher – lets say like 2,000 pigs in year, you will be talking of N60 Million here! Considering how fast pigs reproduces, it wouldn’t be a very much big deal to come up with 100 pigs in a year. (Ayivor, and Hellins, 2002)
Livestock systems occupy about 30 per cent of the planet’s ice-free terrestrial surface area (Steinfeld et al. 2006) and are a significant global asset with a value of at least $1.4 trillion. The livestock sector is increasingly organized in long market chains that employ at least 1.3 billion people globally and directly support the livelihoods of 600 million poor smallholder farmers in the developing world (Thornton et al. 2006). Keeping livestock is an important risk reduction strategy for vulnerable communities, and livestock are important providers of nutrients and traction for growing crops in smallholder systems. Livestock products contribute 17 per cent to kilocalorie consumption and 33 per cent to protein consumption globally, but there are large differences between rich and poor countries (Rosegrant et al. 2009).
Livestock systems have both positive and negative effects on the natural resource base, public health, social equity and economic growth (World Bank 2009). Currently, livestock is one of the fastest growing agricultural subsectors in developing countries. Its share of agricultural GDP is already 33 per cent and is quickly increasing. This growth is driven by the rapidly increasing demand for livestock products, this demand being driven by population growth, urbanization and increasing incomes in developing countries (Delgado 2005).
The global livestock sector is characterized by a dichotomy between developing and developed countries. Total meat production in the developing world tripled between 1980 and 2002, from 45 to 134 million tons (World Bank 2009). Much of this growth was concentrated in countries that experienced rapid economic growth, particularly in East Asia, and revolved around poultry and pigs. In developed countries, on the other hand, production and consumption of livestock products are now growing only slowly or stagnating, although at high levels. Even so, livestock production and merchandizing in industrialized countries account for 53 per cent of agricultural GDP (World Bank 2009). This combination of growing demand in the developing world and stagnant demand in industrialized countries represents a major opportunity for livestock keepers in developing countries, where most demand is met by local production, and this is likely to continue well into the foreseeable future. At the same time, the expansion of agricultural production needs to take place in a way that allows the less well-off to benefit from increased demand and that moderates its impact on the environment.
The modern pig has played and continued to play a major role in providing food for human consumption due in parts to its tremendous versatility and adaptability to a wide-range of environmental conditions. Donham,(2000). This ability to adapt plays a significant role in how pigs are raised and grown in various countries of the world. Hedegepath,(2008).
Pig production is widely scattered across the globe. The estimated global pig inventory of over 801 million in 2002 was a slight increases over the global pig inventory estimate of over 782 million in (2006). The countries of Asia have the largest inventory of pig in the world, accounting for over 62% of the total global inventory in 2002. The countries of European Union account for nearly 15% of the global inventory followed by North America with approximately 10%. pig are produced primarily in regions of the world with available natural resource including arable land, cereal grains and water. Hedegepath, (2008).
With ever increasing human population in Nigeria and virtually static agriculture productivity, the animal protein consumption among Nigerians has worsened in the past few years (Okpor, 2009). Many Nigerians feed on carbohydrate. This is because the average man cannot afford the cost of animal protein which is richer in amino acid. The deficiency of animal protein in the diet of so many people is often attributed to the low number of livestock (cattle, pigs, poultry, goats, sheep and their products), and the activities connected with their production which are not efficient (Morrison, 2001). Ugwu (2006) observed that animal protein apart from its palatability is essential for normal physical and mental development of man. He stated that its deficiency in the diet exerts adverse effects in terms of reduced human productivity due to abnormal development. Equally, he noted that animal protein energy deficiency causes high incidence of infant mortality, pronounced malnutrition and disease.
Livestock production in Edo State has a great potential for commercial production of snail and shrimp in the coast line as well poultry and pig. Morison (2001). Huge market exists for livestock and animal product. The semi savannah climate to the Northern part of the state specifically areas like Auchi, Igarra and Ubiaja are suitable for livestock such as sheep, goat and cattle. The present livestock population in the state is estimated at poultry, 6000,000, Cattle 78,000, Goat 556,000, Sheep278,000, Pigs 189,000 while, cane rats (grass cutter) and snail rearing are in commercial production. Very huge opportunities exist in this sub-sector. Ugwu. (2006.)
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Pig products are good source of protein to every individual and a viable avenue of revenue to both the nation, the citizens of that country. But unfortunately the production of this product is faced with several problems among which are lack of finance, disease outbreak and transportation. If situation is not ratified more serious problems might develop.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
In view of the foregoing, the study set out to answer the following questions in relation to the area of study:
1. Is inadequate finance a problem to pig farming?
2. Does disease outbreak affect the production of pig?
3. Does lack of adequate supply of genetically sound breeders affect pig farming?
4. Does high cost of feed affect pig farming?
5. Does poor infrastructure facilities affect pig farming?
6. Does fear of inadequate market for piggery products and the absent of pig product processing industry in Nigeria affect pig farmers?
1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The main objective of this study is to find out the problem and prospect of pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. The specific objectives are to:
(i)examine the factors influencing pig production in Ovia North East Local Government Area;
(ii)Find out if inadequate finance is a problem of pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government area of Edo State.
(iv) Find out if disease outbreak affects pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The need for this investigation is to know the problems and prospect of pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State. It is said that at the end of this investigation both the farmers and the consumers within the area in which the investigation was carried out will benefit from the findings of the study.
Therefore, this study will help farmers within Edo State to know the various systems of rearing pigs in order to help them to know the best marketing channels to sell their products. Also this study will help the consumer in the same area to know the best hygienic place to purchase their meat and other livestock products.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
In this study, pig farming in Ovia North East Local Government Area of Edo State will be carefully examined. This study will pay particular attention to factors affecting the production of pigs in Edo State. It will also investigate some problems faced by pig farmers in the rearing of pigs and make recommendations that will enhance more farming of pigs in Edo State.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Archaeological: A person who study archaeology. Archeology means the study of countries of the past and of periods of history by examining the remains of building and objects found in the ground.
Nomadic people: A member of a group of people who have no fixed home and move according to the seasons from place to place in search of food, water, and grazing land.
Maturity: Means the ability to control anger and settle differences without violence or destruction. It also has to do with age, and the ability to react, cope and reason thing in good ways in business sector, maturity means something that is good enough for market sale and utilization.
Goldmine: Means a business or an activity that makes a large profit.
Urbanization: Can be defined as the rapid and massive growth of and migration to large cities.
Foreseeable: means “future” what we do not predict for, that will happen five minutes from now but at any point in time things shape up to foreshadow one set of circumstances versus another.
Hygiene: means to be clean and free from all kind of other living things.