1.1 Background to the Study
Organization’s competitive advantage, success, and sustainability in an ever increasing turbulent global market are mainly predicated on the job satisfaction and turnover intention of quality human capital. One major reason for a continued interest in the phenomenon of job satisfaction lies in embedded propensity for positive or negative effects on many forms of employees’ behavioral tendencies such as efficiency, productivity, employee relations, absenteeism and rate of turnover. Job satisfaction implies the way an individual feels about rewards, people, events and amount of mental gladness on the job; it can also be described as an emotional response to a job circumstance that may not be seen (Somvir, 2013). Job satisfaction therefore is a veritable ingredient in any work environment as it determines the behavioral patterns of the employees. It also relates to the degree to which workers’ needs and expectations are met in comparison to the prevailing national and global standard.
Job satisfaction is conceptualized to mean the level of positive attitude that a librarian and other library staff displays when performing his/her duties in the university library, and the rate at which his/her basic needs are met by the employers. It is interesting to note that if librarians and other library staff are well catered for by the university authorities in the area of due recognition for a job well done, good leadership style for the administration of the university library coupled with a career development opportunities for librarians and other library staff to enhance development of their managerial skills, and conducive work environment as well as improved remunerations (good salaries and wages); their level of job satisfaction will be greatly improved from what is presently existing in most Nigerian universities. (Yaya, 2016). Unfortunately, it is observed that the level of job satisfaction among librarians and other library staff in most university libraries in Nigeria is probably very low compared to what is obtainable among other faculty members of the same educational sector. Job satisfaction as noted by Babalola and Nwalo (2013), enhance organisational success and reduce turnover intention of workers in any organization especially in library and information centres as a job satisfied worker is a happy and effective worker.
Staff that are satisfied with their job are likely to work positively for the progress of the organization, whereas employees who are dissatisfied with their job may tend to work against the process of the organization. Similarly, where there is high level of job satisfaction, employees may not think of leaving their job even if there are available opportunities elsewhere. Job satisfaction therefore determines employee’s retention and thus reduces turnover intention. Earlier studies have established that there is a relationship between job satisfaction and turnover intention or retention of workers (Arzi & Farahbod 2014; Ikonne &Onuoha, 2015). Job satisfaction could therefore be seen as the relative degree of fulfilling and rewarding experience of both the career opportunities and work environment by the employee. It could also be seen as a way of ensuring retention of workers and decrease their turnover intention in any organization especially in the private university libraries as satisfied workers are willing to stay and continue working for the organization.
It can be gathered from the foregoing, that job satisfaction of workers in any organisation determines the growth and development of such organization. The welfare of the workforce, the physical and social ambience of the workplace is pivotal for retention. It could be noted that employees that enjoy high level of job satisfaction will display high degree of commitment to their tasks in the organization; there is need for strong and effective job satisfaction indicators such as employee recognition, career advancement opportunity, conducive working environment, reasonable salaries and wages among others to be put in place in organizations including library and information centres so as to reduce the level of turnover intention in library and information centres.
Turnover intention can be described as the rate to which a member of staff is willing to leave a particular organization; it affects organizational sustainability and rating. Turnover intention is a process whereby an employee decides to quit or leave a particular organization for another one for some reasons. It implies an employee’s personal anticipated likelihood that he or she has a deliberate intention to quitting the establishment in the near future. It can also be described as employee’s consideration or thinking to quitting a job (Long & Thean, 2011). Employee’s turnover intention has been a serious problem of organizations regardless of their size, locations, or nature of business as the effect of high turnover intention on organizational objectives affects negatively the quality of organizational products or services (Long & Thean, 2011). Turnover intention may arise as a result of some factors or features directly present in an organization such as, organizational policies, motivational strategies, organisational culture among others.
There are some other factors that may contribute to employee’s turnover intention that organizations may not have control over such as demographic variables (sex, age, educational qualification, years of experience among others). Employee turnover intention can be classified into voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary turnover is a situation whereby an employee makes decision whether to stay or quit an organization. This type of turnover is detrimental to the organization in general because the employees that will make decision to quit the organization for another are often those that are talented and high performing, who are actually working hard thereby giving the organization some competitive advantage to enable it move forward. Involuntary turnover intention on the other hand refers to a situation or a process in which the organization decides to weed the work force; in this case, the organization decides who goes and also stays in most cases, the under-performing employees, are likely to be affected; and this may bring healthy competitions into the organizational workforce and increase employee’s performance and organizational products or services.
Turnover intention is what leads to actual turnover. Employee’s turnover has been a serious issue facing most organizations all over the world across various sizes, locations, and ownership. It is a critical issue that management of organizations should be bold to address because of its negative impact on the organization generally, it increases the cost of running the organisation, it also reduces the productivity of the organization as well as the image of the organization. (Kessler, 2015; Kessler & Catana, 2013). The level of turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in Nigeria is high (Olusegun, 2013). This actually is a course for concern. The causes of turnover intention in an organisation are human resource management related issues, organizational culture, job related issues, leadership style among others. Similarly, the achievement of any organization depends on the retention of key human resources, and to an extent, on customer satisfaction as well as the attraction and retention of first rate skills and manpower sustainability.
Workplace characteristics affect workers perceptions and behaviour in the organization. such characteristics shape the employees’ feeling about the institution; it may be positive or negative and this may result in having the intention to stay or quit. There are some workplace characteristics that the workers consider core and non-negotiable in their assessment of continued longterm commitment. These include:: job security, equity in reward system, group information sharing and management in general. Therefore, these factors could determine how staff members feel about their job in general. (Arshadi & Shahbazi, 2013). Consequently, appropriate leadership style is a precondition for reducing turnover intention in library and information centres.
Leadership style is another issue of concern that organizations should pay attention to; the leadership style prevalent in any establishment (including library and information centres) will influence the behaviour of employees in that organization. Leadership style plays a major role in determining the library staff job satisfaction and turnover intention. Thus, effective leadership is a key success factor in employees and organisation’s success or failure. It could be perceived as a process of working through people to achieve organisational goals and objectives. Leadership style can be described as the method or the style that a leader adopts in the management of resources in the organizations including human resources. Findings have shown that there are various leadership styles that can be adopted in the administration of organisations; (Khan, Khan, Qureshi, Ismail, Rauf, Latif, and Tahir 2015; Segun-Adeniran, 2015; Sharma &Jain 2013; Onuoha, 2013). Some of these styles are autocratic, democratic and laissez-fair. Other researchers also classified leadership styles as transactional, transformational and situational.
In general, leaders at one point in time adopt a style of leadership in the day to day administration of their organizations; and the style of leadership that is prevalent in an organization/library and information centres will have influence on the organizational resources, functions and services or products. Leadership is a process or an act of inspiring people so as to get the best out of them and at the same time achieve expected results. The leadership style adopted by managers or leaders at one point or the other will influence the librarians’ job satisfaction and turnover intention. Various researchers such as (Kaladeh, (2013), Izidor and Iheriohanma (2015). pointed out that leadership style is crucial for staff job satisfaction and intention to stay, bearing in mind that lack of staff satisfaction can increase the gap in turnover intention rate and manpower deficiency in any organisation including library and information centres; and that leadership and supervision are important in employee retention, and that leadership behavior as perceived by employee, is an important factor of workers’ job satisfaction, dedication, retention and turnover intention. A suitable leadership style existing in any kind of organization could possibly foist and foster enduring organisational culture capable of inspiring employees buy-in for greater satisfaction and loyalty.
Organisational culture can be described as the sum of basic assumptions, practices, principles, beliefs, norms and values that govern behaviour and actions of members of a particular organisation, community or society. It is an incorporated pattern of human behaviour that is special to a particular organization, and it is a powerful tool that influences employees’ behaviour and organisational success or failure. Organisational culture provides the fundamental values, beliefs and principles that serve as underpinning for any organisational practices and procedures. It is the pattern of shared basic assumptions which is invented, discovered or developed by a given group or an organisation as a method of doing things which have worked well enough to be considered valid, and to be inculcated into new members of the organisation as the correct way to perceive, think, feel and do things in that particular organization (Emerson, 2013). It is reported by scholars (Omoankhan, Oloda & Ajanake 2014; Bellary, Sadlapur & Naik, 2015), that organisational culture is a powerful force that influences both employee dispositions and institutional success. It defines the acceptable behaviour in an organization, and at the same time, affects, the individual workforce satisfaction and turnover intention. Organisational culture is therefore intricately related to the job satisfaction and turnover intention of workers in any organization.
Organisational culture can also be described as the practices developed by organizations as ways of behaviour and handling of people in that organisation; it is a major factor that influences organisational decisions and actions. It influences job satisfaction and turnover intention; the reason is that employees who fit well with an organization’s culture are more likely to be satisfied with their job and, at the same time, remain with the organisation, whereas employees that are incompatible with a given culture are more likely to be dissatisfied with their job and consequently quit the organisation voluntary (Emerson, 2013; citing Jenkins, Deis, Bedard & Curtis 2008, Benke& Rhoda 1994). organisational culture is formed through the process interactions among specific elements, such as organisation founder, selection criteria, top management and socialization. Therefore, the influence of founders is eminent in determining the culture of their organisations especially in private universities.
Denison (1993) proposed a theory of organisational culture that consists of the following variants: involvement, consistency, adaptability, and mission. Involvement orientation is based on the culture of employees’ engagement, capacity building of the employee and participation of individual member of the organisation leading to having a sense of ownership, responsibility and commitment. In this type of oragnisational culture, employees are dedicated to their job and feel a sense of stake-holder in the organisation when they are involved in decision making that concern their job. Consistency orientation implies that organizations also tend to be effective because they have strong cultures that are very consistent, coordinated, and integrated. The individual way of doing things are entrenched in a set of core values, the organizational members are able to reach an agreement and meaningful decision that will move the organization forward. Also, according to Danison, adaptability orientation implies the organization is always changing in the system so as to advance the organizations’ group abilities to give value to their clientele in ever changing society; the organisation is driven by customers’ satisfaction. Mission orientation culture on the other hand implies that the organisation have a sense of purpose and direction for achieving organisational goals. It also involves a vision of how the future of the organisation will look like. Libraries and information centres should practice more of the culture of involvement. This implies that employees should be part of the decision making process especially in matters that affect their job and career. The issues of staff involvement culture through training and development should be part of the organisations’ central culture and this will eventually motivate library staff , increase their level of job satisfaction and reduce their rate of turnover intention.
A fundamental factor that can enhance organizational culture is associated with motivation. When organizations motivate employees, there is every tendency that employees will cooperate and buy-in or embrace the culture of that organization irrespective of the texture. Motivation is a force that drives person to action and performance. The level of motivation that employees receive from their employers will have influence on their job satisfaction and turnover intention. It is both intrinsic and extrinsic forces that drive or push individuals to work; it enables the individual to push harder and leading to high performance and organizational productivity. It is the process that arouses, energizes, directs, and sustains behaviour and performance; in other words, it is the forces that stimulate a worker to action to achieve a set goal. One way of inspiring employees is through motivation, which makes workers more fulfilled and dedicated to their jobs and at the same time reduce turnover intention in organizations/ library and information centers (Olusegun 2012, citing Luthans 1998).
It also infkluence quality service delivery in library and information centres. It is therefore imperative for library management to meet the demands of their personnel to strengthen their satisfaction, and commitment to minimize turnover intention. However, literature further shows that some employees are not adequately motivated while performing their jobs. Employees occupy a strategic role and position in the organization as they are responsible for converting inputs to productive outputs (Datta & Datta, 2013). Well motivated workforce would be satisfied with their job and thereby constitute a pool of human capital to gain organisational competitive edge over its competitors in the same industry.
Research has linked job satisfaction and turnover intention to motivation; workers that are effectively motivated with good and competitive salary, good working conditions, regular promotion, and recognition by superior, appropriate reward systems and career development are susceptible to job satisfaction and reduced turnover intention. (Idiegbeyan-ose & Idahosa 2011, Nyamubarwa, 2013, Kim & Park, 2014). Similarly, staff motivation is an essential factor in every organization especially the private university library. It enables library staff to exert their real efforts in achieving the stated goals and objectives of the library. Library management should be concerned with how to motivate her workforce; this could be done through creativity, innovation and provision of fringe benefits that are comparable to the best in the industry. This belief is often reflected in the workers’ emotions as they agitate for more attention from the management to their plight. The workers’ expectations and emotional dispositions have to be adequately managed in order to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization, especially in private university libraries.
The establishment of private universities in Nigeria can be traced back to the need to widen access to higher education regardless of age and gender (Osagie, 2009; Adekola, 2010). The challenges in processing and getting admissions into public universities across the country, prolong academic calendar, crowded students population, poor conditions of infra-structures and general indiscipline among staff and students in government-owned universities necessitated the involvement of private sector participation in establishing universities as a panacea to revitalizing efficiency and effectiveness in the Nigerian University system. (Enahoro & Badmus, 2013). Similarly, Osagie (2009) is of the opinion that private higher education in Nigeria is emerging as one of the most dynamic segments of postsecondary education at the turn of the 21st century. Its prominence is linked with the ideology of deregulation that is so influential at present and in tandem with the trend worldwide to cut down public spending. Also, Oloyede and Adekola (2010) observed that private universities are recent developments in Nigeria as compared to the Federal and State government-owned universities.
The dispensation has evolved during two historic phases, namely, the first during the second Republic under President Shehu Shagari’s administration (1979- 1983), the second phase was during the Fourth Republic under President Olusegun Obasanjo (1999-2007). During the second Republic, some interested stakeholders decided to utilize the opportunity of the democratic freedom to establish private universities. Nigeria presently has 141 universities comprising of 40 federal, 40 state and 61 private as at June 20, 2016 (National Universities Commission, 2016), and all these universities have libraries and staff working in them. Out of the 61 private universities in Nigeria, 27 are located in southwest geopolitical zone of the country, hence the choice of southwest for this study.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Human capital is a key success factor in any organisation. Dissatisfied and unhappy employees in any organisation may not perform optimally and this may translate into poor productivity, high rate of staff turnover and threat to the organization generally. Research has shown that the level of job satisfaction of library personnel in Nigerian university libraries is low (Babalola & Nwalo, 2013). Similarly, it has also been discovered that the level of turnover intention of library staff in university libraries is high (Olusegun, 2013). This actually is a course for concern. Although some studies such as Ridwen, (2015) Seed, Weseem, Sikander and Rizwan (2014); have been carried out on job satisfaction and turnover intention of staff in university libraries, from the researcher’s knowledge, none has studied the combination of these variables in this study especially in private universities.
In other words, studies have not been directed at investigating the relationships between welfare, personal and managerial issues such as leadership style, organisational culture and staff motivation on one side and job satisfaction and turnover intention on the other side. The aim of this research is to find out the relationships among these variables; especially, the extent to which leadership style, organizational culture and staff motivation influence the job satisfaction and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries, South-West, Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The general objective of the study is to investigate leadership style, organizational culture and staff motivation as correlates of job satisfaction and turnover intention in private universities library, South-West, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to:
- find out the level of job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- identify the level of turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- ascertain the leadership styles prevalent in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- identify the organizational culture in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- establish the level of motivation of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- find out the relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries south-west, Nigeria;
- find out the relationship between leadership style and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries south-west, Nigeria
- ascertain the relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of library staff in private universities in south-west Nigeria;
- establish the relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries south-west, Nigeria
- determine the relationship between staff motivation and job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria;
- ascertain the relationship between staff motivation and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in southwest Nigeria;
- investigate the combined effects of leadership style, organisational culture and staff motivation on job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries in south-west Nigeria and
- ascertain the combined effects of leadership style, organisational culture and staff motivation on turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria;
1.4 Research Questions
The following are the research questions that this study seeks to answer:
- what is the degree of job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
- what is the level of turnover intention of library staff in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
- what are the leadership styles prevalent in the private university libraries in South-West Nigeria?
- what is the organizational culture in the chosen private university libraries in South-West?
- what is the level of motivation of library staff in the selected libraries in South-West?
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance:
1. Ho1: There is no significant relationship between leadership style and job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries South-West Nigeria;
2. Ho2: There is no significant relationship between leadership style and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria;
3. Ho3: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and job satisfaction of library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria;
4. Ho4: There is no significant relationship between organizational culture and turnover intention of library staff in selected libraries;
5. Ho5: There is no significant relationship between staff motivation and job satisfaction among the library staff of the chosen libraries;
6. Ho6: There is no significant relationship between staff motivation and turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in South-West Nigeria;
7. Ho7: There is no combined effect of leadership style, organizational culture and staff motivation on job satisfaction of the library staff;
8. Ho8: There is no combined effect of leadership style, organizational culture and staff motivation on turnover intention of library staff.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study is limited to the private universities in southwest Nigeria; this implies that federal, state and government owned degree awarding institutions are excluded. Respondents will be the library staff in the private university libraries of south-west geo-political zone of Nigeria. The reason for the choice of south-west zone is because majority of the private universities in Nigeria are situated in the zone. Other support staff in the libraries is excluded from the study. The independent variables of leadership style, organizational culture and motivation will be measured against librarians’ level of job satisfaction and turnover intention.
1.7 Significance of the Study
This study is set out to investigate how leadership style, organizational culture and motivation can improve job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention of library staff in private university libraries in Nigeria. Therefore, the outcome of this research would add to existing literature and also bring out the leadership style, the type of organizational practices and motivational forces or ingredients that enhance job satisfaction and reduce intentional turnover of employee in libraries and information centres in Nigeria, especially private university libraries. It would also help university management and human resource personnel of private universities to design intervention strategies using the variables implicated in this study to increase job satisfaction and reduce turnover intention of librarians in private university libraries in Nigeria. The study would discuss the predictors of turnover intention, and managements of private universities in Nigeria will find it useful in reducing the occurrence of voluntary turnover.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Leadership Style: This is the method adopted by a leader in an attempt to provide directions, implement organizational plans and motivate the staff. It includes patterns of actions performed by the leader.
Organizational culture: This is a set of corporate behaviour, attitude, values and polices that defines a particular organization.
Motivation: This implies the forces or factors that push, energize and sustain human behaviour toward performing a task. It can be intrinsic or extrinsic in nature.
Job satisfaction: The individual’s feeling about his or her job and the extent to which the individual is happy and satisfied about the work characteristics. It is conceptualized in this work to mean an employee positive attitude toward the job in the organization and this may be determined by the rate in which the employee needs and expectations are met.
Turnover intention: This means employees’ personal and voluntary intent to leaving the organization permanently in the near future. It is used in this research to mean the employees who are considering or thinking of quitting a job or organization and leading to actual quitting the job or organization (turnover).
Librarian: A person trained in library and information science school with minimum of first degree and is working in library or information centre.
Private university: Private universities are those not operated by the government; although they are subject to government regulations but they set their own policies and goals. In this study private university refers to degree awarding institutions that are founded and financed by private individuals or corporate bodies like religion organizations.
Library Staff: They are workers that are employed and are working in the library. In this study, library staff includes professional librarians, para-professional librarians. (Library officers) and library assistant.
Support Staff: they are workers in the library but are not engage in core library activities such as the information technology staff, the institutional repository staff, the security staff and the cleaners.