1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Housing (Shelter) is unarguably one of the basic necessities of man. It used to be ranked second after food in the hierarchy of man’s needs but according to Ebie (2009) it is the first and most important of all rights. According to him, because of the importance attached to housing and coupled with the fact that housing in all its ramifications is more than mere shelter, then, execution of public sector housing embraces all social services and utilities that go to make a community or neighbourhood a livable environment, this is now a right in Nigeria. This position is reinforced by section 16(1)(d) of 1999 constitution under the Fundamental Objectives of State Policy which compels the Nigerian State “to provide suitable and adequate shelter for all citizens” Even though this provision is not actionable, it reinforces the call for public sector driven mass housing provision in Nigeria. Housing being a right entails that all strata of a society including the less privileged members of the society, the old, the disadvantaged, the wondering psychotics should own or have access to decent, safe and sanitary housing accommodation at affordable disposal prices or rental with secure tenure.
Unfortunately the reverse is the case as in spite of the policies, institutions and regulations which various Nigerian Governments have put in place since independence; there is still dearth of housing for low income segment. A recent study of housing situation in Nigeria put existing housing stock at 23 per 1000 inhabitant. Housing deficit is put at 15 million housing units (Mabogunje, 2007) while 12 trillion naira will be required to finance the deficit. This is about 4 times the annual budget of Nigeria (FHA, 2007). Housing is of supreme importance to man and one of the best indicators of a person’s standard of living and his place in society. However, at no point has it been adequately supplied either quantitatively or qualitatively (Jiboye 2009; Omoniyi & Jiboye, 2011). Over time, the need for adequate shelter has continued to attract global attention especially in developing countries where the urbanization process has been growing at an alarming rate. The phenomenal rise in population, increase in number and size of most cities in the past decades have led to acute shortage of adequate dwelling units in many urban centres globally (Jiboye, 2009).
Consequently, in recent time, the issue of housing has formed part of the major discussion in several global summits such as the 1992 Rio-de Janeiro summit on environment and development, the 1996 Habitat summit at Istanbul, the 2000 New York, United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGS) summit, 2002 World Summit in Johannesburg and the 2005 La Havana, UN sustainable Cities Documentation of Experience Programme (Oladunjoye, 2005; UN-Habitat, 2007; UNDPI, 2008).
Nigeria, like other developing countries is saddled with uncontrollable growth of the urban population caused by lack of provision of infrastructural facilities and poor economic conditions in the rural areas. The proportion of the Nigerian population living in urban centres has increased phenomenally from 7% in the 1930s, 10% in 1950, 20% in 1970, 27% in 1980 to 35% in 1990
(Okupe, 2002). Over 40% of Nigerians now live in urban centres of varying sizes. The incidence of this population in urban centres has created severe housing problems, resulting in overcrowding in inadequate dwellings, and in a situation in which 60% of Nigerians can be said to be “houseless persons” (Federal Government of Nigeria, 2004).
Besides the incidence of overcrowding in the existing housing stock, rural-urban drift has occasioned the sprouting of make shift dwellings or squatter settlements in cities that are devoid of minimum structural and normative quality. Majority of the houses are constructed with all sorts of refuse/second-hand materials in illegally occupied self allocated land, they are badly maintained and lack the basic necessities of life like sanitary facilities, light, air and privacy. As evidenced by past researches in housing studies, most urban centres in the country are characterized by high density buildings, acute sanitary problems, pollution of air, surface water, noise and solid wastes (Filani, 1987, Agbola, 1998). According to Olotuah (2002) estimated 2.3 million urban dwelling units are substandard, only 33% of urban houses can be considered to be physically sound, and 44% and 19% require minor and major repairs respectively to bring them to normative and structural quality. Despite all efforts of the government at achieving sustained housing delivery to the common people, existing realities indicate the goal is far from being achieved. It is against this background that this research examines the major issues and challenges of execution of public sector housing in Nigeria with a view to stimulating relevant agencies of government and other stakeholders into designing appropriate strategies for effective execution of public sector housing in Nigeria.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
In many developing countries, including Nigeria, urban housing crisis is escalating unabated despite a number of new policies, programs and strategies being engaged in by public and private sectors aimed at execution of public sector housing in addressing this problem (Okupe, 2002). Since execution of public sector housing is principally carried out by government agencies and their collaborators, the researcher argues that one vital step to addressing myriads of issues and challenges in execution of public sector housing in Nigeria is to identify areas of weakness in public housing agencies and subsequently address such weakness for enhanced productivity (Jiboye, 2009). It is for this reason that the study investigated the contextual and organizational challenges related to execution of public sector housing in Nigeria in the post independence era.
This study attempted at using key organizational components to assess areas of challenges in execution of public sector housing among government agencies in the study area. This is with a view to assisting public-sector housing policy makers and program managers chart future pathways for improved performance in public housing provision and management in Nigeria.
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
The general objective of this research is to analyze the issues and challenges in the execution of public sector housing in Nigeria while the following are the specific objectives:
1. To examine the challenges of execution of public sector housing in Nigeria.
2. To ascertain the factors causing housing challenges in Nigeria.
3. To determine the solution to the issues of execution of public sector housing in Nigeria.
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the issues and challenges in execution of public sector housing in Nigeria?
2. What are the factors causing housing challenges in Nigeria?
3. What are the solutions to the issues of execution of public sector housing in Nigeria?
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The following are the significance of this study:
1. Outcome of this study will educate stakeholders in housing development and the general public on the issues and challenges of execution of public sector housing in Nigeria thereby making the study very useful as a guide to policy makers in government. This will however helped in better housing development policy adoption and implementation.
2. This study will also assist public-sector housing policy makers and program managers to chart future pathways for improved performance in execution of public sector housing and management in Nigeria.
3. This research will also serve as a resource base to other scholars and researchers interested in carrying out further research in this field subsequently, if applied, it will go to an extent to provide new explanation to the topic.
1.7 SCOPE/LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY
This study on issues and challenges in the execution of public sector housing project in Nigeria will cover the major issues on poor housing development in Nigeria with a view to determine a strategic framework for massive execution of public sector housing projects in Nigeria.
LIMITATION OF STUDY
Financial constraint– Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint– The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
Housing: Buildings or structures that individuals and their family may live in that meet certain federal regulations. Different housing situations vary for individuals and may depend on age, family, and geographic location. For example, a recent university graduate in an urban environment in the US may live in a rented apartment whereas a middle-aged entrepreneur may live in a house with or without a mortgage.
Public: of or concerning the people as a whole.
Population: all the inhabitants of a particular place.
Migration: Movement of people to a new area or country in order to find work or better living conditions: the extensive rural-to-urban migration has created a severe housing problems.
Agbola, S.B. (1998) The housing of Nigerians – A review of policy development and implementation. Research Reports No. 14 Ibadan, Nigeria: Development Policy Centre.
Ebie, S.P.O.F.(2009, May). Public sector driven housing; achievements and problems. Paper presented at the 2009 Faculty of Environmental Sciences Annual lecture, Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka.
Federal Government of Nigeria (2004) National Housing Policy Draft, Abuja.
Federal Republic of Nigeria (1999) Constitution 10
Jiboye, A.D (2009). The challenges of sustainable housing and urban development in Nigeria. Journal of Environmental Research and Policies 4(3), 23-27
Okupe, L (2002) Private sector initiative in housing development in Nigeria – How feasible? Housing Today, 1(6), 21-26
OladunJoye, A. O. (2005). Implementation of the sustainable cities programme in Nigeria. Havana 2005 – Documentation of experience SCP.LA21. Sustainable cities programme. Locating Agenda 21 Programme.
Olotuoh, A.O. & Ajemifujah, A.O. (2009). Architectural education and housing provision in Nigeria. CEBE Transactions 6(1), 86-102. Retrieved from http://www.cebe.heacademy.ac.uk/transactions /pdf/ olotuahajemifujah6 (1) p.d.f.
Omoniyi, S & Jiboye, A.D (2011). Effective housing policy and sustainable development in Nigeria. International Journal of Development Studies. 6(1), 129-135
UN-Habitat, (2007) Milestones in the Evolution of Human Settlement Policies. 1976-2006. State of the World Cities. Report 2006/2007. The MDGS and Urban Sustainability. 30 years of Shaping the Habitat Agenda. Earsthean
United Nations Development of Public Information (UNDPI) (2008). Achieving the Millennium Development Goals in Africa. Recommendations of the MDG steering group. Retrieved from http://www.indgafrica.org.pdf.
Latest Research Project Topics Materials in the Department:
- HYDRODYNAMICS BEHAVIOUR OF SLUG FLOW IN 800 OFF THE HORIZONTAL PIPE USING ELECTRICAL CAPACITANCE TOMOGRAPHY (ECT) DATA
- IMPLICATION OF VOID PREDICTION IN THE DETERMINATION OF PRESSURE GRADIENT IN VERTICAL PIPES
- INVESTIGATING HORIZONTAL-WELL INTERFERENCE TEST APPLICATIONS
- INVESTIGATING THE BEHAVIOUR OF AIR-SILICONE OIL FLOWS IN VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL PIPES FOR EFFECTIVE GAS-LIQUID TRANSPORT
- MATERIAL BALANCE APPLICATION FOR BROWNFIELD DEVELOPMENT
- MODELING AND SIMULATION OF RESERVOIR FORMATION DAMAGE DUE TO CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION AND PARTICULATE PROCESSES