COMPLETE SCHOOL PROJECT TOPICS & MATERIALS :
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2.1 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
The concept of motivation has been defined in different ways by different scholars. Motivation is derived from a Latin word known as ‘Movere’.
Movere means to move. Motivation is based on the principle of hedonism. Hedonism is that human tendency to seek pleasure and avoid pain.
Berelson and Staines (2003) defined the concept of motivation as an inner state that encourages, activities or mores, direct and channels behaviour towards goals.
It is also referred to as a general term applying to the entire class of drives, needs, wishes and similar forces that propel an employee to action. For example, an employee of an organization may decide to work with all enthusiasm indicating she wants to make a major contribution to the realization of the organization’s objective. The employer may decide to reward the employee with mere words of mouths of monetary rewards. The
employer’s reward can further motivate employee to productivity.
Beach (2005) defined motivation as the willingness to expend energy in order to achieve a goal.
Appleby (2002:24) says hat motivation is keenness for a particular pattern or behaviour. He explained how drive, urges and needs of individuals direct and control their behaviour.
Davies (2005) defines the concept as what goes on inside a person, which brings about her behaviour. Davies emphasizes that lack of motivation could make an individual not to achieve satisfaction from the work.
Agbeto (2002) define the term as that thing which moves somebody towards a goal. Motivation is a term applying to the class drives, desire, needs, wishes and similar forces. (Koontz O’Donnell, 2008).
Implicit in all the definitions of motivation above, is the fact that motivation deals with the factors that induce people to performance in the organization.
2.2 FACTORS THAT MOTIVATE EMPLOYEES TO PERFORM IN AN ORGANIZATION
2.2.1 Leadership Style: Leadership style plays an important role in the motivation of workers to performance. The style of leading adopted by a manager can affect the performance of the subordinates. The success of a leadership in influencing subordinates to performance can be affected by certain situational variables like confidence of the subordinates, experience, the need and the perception of the subordinates. It is important that before any leader adopts any style of leading, he should first of all understand the nature and characteristics of the subordinates since this can affect his performance, the subordinate of all understand the nature and characteristics of the subordinates since this can affect his performance, the subordinate perception of the boss. Leadership style can be a source of motivation.
- Management by Objective (MBO): This is one of the most motivational techniques used by management. Its use in the organization has increased since its inception in 1950s. The
programme is designed to encompass specific goals, participative set for an explicit time period with feedback on goals progress. This was advocated in different forms and one of the advocates is Peter Drucker, who first introduced the concept. Drucker (2009) states that the objective of the MBO should be concise statement of expected accomplishment, that is the superior and the subordinates should jointly choose the goals and decide on how they will be measured. Drucker believes that the greatest advantage of the MBO is that it allows the worker to control his productivity. This self-control will result in stronger motivation to do the best rather than just get by it.
Another philosopher of the MBO were Koontz et al. they defined it as a process whereby the superior and the subordinates jointly identifies the common goal, define individual major areas of responsibility in terms of the result expected of him and use these measures as guards for operating the units and accessing the contribution of each of his members.
An important factor in Koontz et al view point is for the subordinates and superiors to have an understanding regarding the subordinates’ major areas of responsibility. A common feature in Drucker and Koontz et al conceptions of MBO is that MBO can lead to improved motivation of the participants. This is because the superior and subordinates meets to discuss the goals of their department, which must be in line with overall goals of the organization.
The superior and subordinate meet again after the initial goals are established and evaluate the subordinate performance inters of goals. With the participation of the subordinates in discussion, establishment and emulation of the organizational goals as specified by MBO, the subordinate will be motivated to contribute his best to the attainment of the goal. MBO gives the subordinates a sense belonging can motivate them to act.
- Job Enrichment: Researchers and analysis of motivation points to the importance of making job challenging and meaningful to the person doing the job. Herzberg et al popularized Job enrichment as motivational technique in their two-factor theory of motivation.
Job enrichment is referred to as the vertical expansion of the job which entails giving the individual full control and autonomy over the job he his doing.
Basically, increasing the responsibility of a job in order to increase the satisfaction associated with the job. A job may be enriched in the following ways:
- Giving room for selection of jobs where better motivation is more likely to improve performance. The job must be designed to provide opportunities for achievement, recognition, responsibility, advancement and growth. The technique entails enriching the job so that these factors are included.
- Encouraging participation of subordinates and interaction between workers.
- By giving workers a feeling of personal responsibility of their task.
- By taking steps to make sure that people can see how their task contributes to a finished products and the welfare of the enterprise.
- Giving people a feedback on their job performance.
Involving workers in analysis and change of physical aspect of the work environment such as layout of the office or plant, temperature lighting, and cleanliness. With job enrichment, workers interest in their job may be generated and their level of motivation will be increased.
2.2.4 Job Enlargement: Job enlargement is another technique of motivation. It is referred to as the horizontal expansion of the job. Job enlargement simply makes a job varied by removing dullness associated with performing the job. It means enlarging the scope of the job by adding task without enhancing responsibility. The essence of job enlargement is to prevent monotony, which kills, interest and job interesting to the workers. Job enlargement can help to motivate people to productivity.
2.2.5 Positive Re-Enforcement: This is another motivational technique used as a means of motivating workers to productivity. Re-enforcement is used to motivate workers to performance by encouraging a desired behaviour and discouraging an undesired baehaviour. Re-enforcement approach to the motivation of workers was first developed by a Harvard psychologist known as B.F. Skinner. This theory was first developed in learning, which entails encouraging desired behaviour and discouraging undesired behaviour. It can be used to encourage the workers to performance by rewarding a desired behaviour. For example, an engineer is given the task of designing a new piece of equipment (stimulus) the engineer exerts a high level of efforts and complete the project in time (response), the supervisor reviews the work and recommend an increase pay for an excellent work (positive re-enforcement).
Rewording a desired behavior entails monetary reward, promotion, recognition and praise. With positive re-enforcement, a behaviour desired by the management can be repeated in subsequent times.
2.2.6 Money: Money cannot be overlooked as a means of motivating workers to performance whether in the form of wages, piecework, bonuses, or any other incentive pay that may be given to employees for performance. The influence of money as a motivational technique is a function of the need level of the worker. A worker who is striving to satisfy his psychological needs will value money more than a worker striving to satisfy a self-actualization need. Management should understand the desire of workers before using money as a means of motivating them to performance.
2.2.7 Participation: Participation is another motivational technique which requires that management of any organization should also consult employees on decision affecting them and that they should be given the opportunity to air their own views with regards to such decisions. Researchers have shown that when workers are allowed to have a say in things that affect them in the work place, they tend to be satisfied.
This increases productivity and discourages absenteeism. Participation is also a means of recognition. It appeals to the need for affiliation and acceptance. Above all, it gives people sense of accomplishment.
2.2.8 Welfare Schemes
These are facilities provided by the organization, which are in addition to workers wages or salaries.
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