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DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE

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Abstract 

The culture of people determines and shapes the domestic space in their domestic
architecture. Subsequent modifications of the  idea have focused on more precise  revelations
of how the spatial  arrangements of material culture are culturally patterned.  Through a
topological analysis of house plans and patterns, collected from the City of Benin, this study
detects a  transformation  in the house-type  aspired and developed by people  during the last
five centuries.  A group of 1054 houses, located  in four residential zones  in Benin City, Nigeria, has been analysed by means of  frequency distribution,  Space Syntax categories  and factor analysis.
The research is determined  to find out how the use, organization and meaning of space in
Benin have changed and whether or not there are continuities over the years across the entire
City.   The Space Syntax approach is used to measure the varying degree of change at each
stage of the evolution. Here, the „space-activity‟ interaction is the main idea that enables us to
see what underlies the process. As the old  spaces  take different names and functions in the
new  design, they bring about the recombination of their activities, and when this occurs
repeatedly at each stage, it leaves behind „topological paths‟ from which the direction of the
evolution can be measured.  Further examinations reveal that the  space-activity interaction
arises both at each partitioned  space and at the collective  space that is closely  related. The
analysis of the attitudes and responses of the residents using factor analysis revealed that both
socio-economic and socio-cultural factors are responsible for the change and continuity in the
domestic space.

 TABLE OF CONTENTS
Title Page ———-.——————————————————.
Declaration—————————————————————-.i
Certification————————————————————–…ii
Dedication—————————————————————-.iii
Acknowledgements——————————————————–.iv
Table of Content—————————————-vi
List of Tables —————-…——————————————…xi
List of Figures ——————–.————————————…..xiv
List of Plates—————-…—————————————-….xviii
Abstract——————————–..——————————–.xix

CHAPTER 1           INTRODUCTION 

1.1 Background to the Study———————————————-….1
1.2 Statement of the Problem ————————————————..6
1.3 Research Questions————————————..7
1.4 Aim and Objectives of the Study——————————————–.7
1.5 Scope of the Study ——————————————————.8
1.6 The Context of the Study ————————————————….9
1.6.1 The History and People of Benin City————————–9
1.6.2 Historical Background——————————–…..12
1.6.3 Benin and its Surrounding Villages————————–..18
1.6.4 Residential Zones in Benin City—————————-.20

CHAPTER 2           LITERATURE REVIEW 

2.1 Introduction————————————————————24
2.2 Domestic Architecture and Culture—————————————-..24
2.3 Social and Cultural Change———————————————-..32
2.4 Urbanization and Urban Change ——————————————.46
2.5 Summary—————————————-….56

CHAPTER 3              THEORETICAL AND CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 Introduction—————————————-58
3.2 Concept of Culture—————————————————-…58
3.3 House Form and Culture——————..—————————-….60
3.4 Traditional versus Modern Houses–.—————————-.——–….63
3.5 Classification of House-types ————————————–…..66
3.6 Organization, Use and Meaning of Space———————————-…68
3.7 Household——————————————————…72
3.8 Summary—————————————-…75

CHAPTER 4               RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 
4.1 Introduction————————————————————77
4.2 The Research Design————————————————–….78
4.3 Study Population——————————————————–79
4.4 Sampling Method/Procedure————————————–..80
4.5 Sample Size———————————————————-. 80
4.6 Data Collection——————————————————…..83 TABLE OF CONTENTS
4.6.1 Design of Questionnaire ———————————————-…84
4.6.2 Design of Interview Schedule ———————————-..85
4.6.3 Data Collection and Presentation—————————————-..86

CHAPTER 5              SOCIO-ECONOMIC AND CULTURAL CHARACTERISTICS 
OF THE RESIDENTS IN BENIN 
5.1 Introduction———————————————————-..88
5.2 Socio-Economic Characteristics of the Residents—————————-…89
5.2.1 Household Income————————————————–….90
5.2.2 Occupational Structure————————————————–92
5.2.3 Age and Sex ——————————————————…93
5.2.4 Marital Status and Household Size————————————–…94
5.2.5 Ethnic Composition————————————————–…95
5.2.6 Educational Background of Respondents——————————–…..96
5.2.7 Tenure status of respondents——————————.97
5.3 Socio-Cultural Characteristics of Residents———————————-…98
5.3.1 Religion————————————————————…99
5.3.2 Number of household ———————————————-…..99
5.4 Summary—————————————-..100

CHAPTER 6           HOUSES IN BENIN: TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS 
6.1 Introduction———————————————————-..102
6.2 Classification of the Houses and their Characteristics————————…..103
6.3 Classification of the Houses ——————————————–103
6.3.1 Core Residential Zone————————————————.107 vii
6.3.2 Intermediate Residential Zone—————————————-…..120
6.3.3 Sub-urban Residential Zone——————————————….133

6.3.4 Planned Estate Residential Zone—————————————-.141
6.4 Characteristics of the Houses——————————————…..150
6.4.1 Tenure Composition————————————————….150
6.4.2. Number of Household in the House————————————–152
6.4.3. Length of Years of Stay in the House———————————-…153
6.4.4. Age of the House—————————————————-.154
6.4.5. Owner—————————————-..156
6.5 Synthesis——–..———————————————-158

CHAPTER 7      ORGANIZATION, USE AND MEANING OF SPACES IN BENIN
HOUSES 

7.1 Introduction——————————————————–..160
7.2 Approaches to the Study of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic Space—-…161
7.3 The Architectural Approach——————————————–…161
7.3.1 Organization and Use of Domestic Space———————————-.162
7.3.2 Meaning of Domestic Space——————————————….162
7.3.3 Socio-Spatial Analysis of Domestic Spaces in Benin———————-…..164
7.3.4 Socio-Spatial Analysis of the House-types across the Residential Zones———-.165
7.3.5 Houses types——————————————————–166
7.4 Analysis and Interpretation of Organization, Use and Meaning of Domestic
Space in Benin——————————————————.166
7.4.1 Cooking and Eating Spaces——————————————…..167
7.4.2 Storage Space for Household Goods————————————180 viii
7.4.3 Sleeping Arrangement———————————————-…..188
7.4.4 Space for Personal Hygiene——————————————….196
7.4.5 Outdoor Spaces (Communal, Private and Public), Receiving Guest ———-…..209
7.4.6 Space for Worship and Socializing, Ceremonies and Festival—————-..222
7.4.7 Summary and Interpretation——————————————….236
7.5 Data on Attitudes and Response of Respondents —————————-..237
7.5.1 Summary———————————————————-…244
7.6 Synthesis—————————————-..245

CHAPTER 8           SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
8.1 Introduction——————————————————–…246
8.2 Summaries of Findings ———————————————-…..247
8.3 Synthesis ———————————————————-…249
8.4 Syntheses of Continuity and Change————————–.251
8.5 Implications of Findings ———————————————-…251
8.6 Emerging Issues————————————————–.252
8.6.1 Public and Private Spaces——————————————–…252
8.6.2 Privacy————————————————————…253
8.6.3 Training for Local Builders——————————————–…253
8.6.4 Security———————————————————-….253
8.6.5 Building for Culture and Climate—————————————-254
8.7 Conclusions——————————————————–….254

BIBLIOGRAPHY—————————————————-…..256
APPENDIX———————————————————-….277  ix 

List of Plates 

Plate 1.1:   Engraving Showing Warriors with Spears and Shields, Drummers
and Dancers, during a Ceremony in the Oba Palace——————–….13
Plate 1.2: Pre-Colonial Drawing of Benin City, Before The British Occupation——–….15
Plate 6.1: Private Courtyard (Harem for Women and Children) – Ikun N’oderie——–….108
Plate 6.2: Private Courtyard- (Harem for Women and Children) – Ikun N’oderie——–109
Plate 6.3: Public Courtyard (Entrance Courtyard) – (Ikun N’odore)——————–109
Plate 6.4: Outer Courtyard for Shrines and 1dols – (Ikun N’arhuera)——————.111
Plate 6.5: Shows That Externally the Mud Walls are Finished in a
Pattern of Horizontal Ribs——————————————.112
Double Floor House———————————————-..192

List of Figures 

Fig 1.1: Map of the Kingdom of Benin In the nineteenth century——————–..10
Fig 1.2: Present Day Nigeria, Showing the Position of Benin City——————–.11
Fig 1.3: Reconstructed Kingdom Benin Flag, now in the British National Maritime Museum.——————————————–…12
Fig1.4: Map of Benin and Its Surrounding  Villages——————————…19
Fig 1.5: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City—————————-…20
Fig 1.6: Plan of Benin-City Showing the Core Area and Intermediate Area————..22
Fig 2.1: Culture Changes in Tandem with Built Environment————————37
Fig 2.2: Tracing the Change Over Time—————————————-…38
Fig 3.1: Hierarchy of Spaces, Showing Private, Semi-Private and Communal Spaces —-..69
Fig 3.2: Summary of Conceptual Framework on Built Form and Culture————–74
Fig 4.1: Map Showing Residential Zone in Benin-City—————————-…81
Fig 6.1a Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House————————–113
Fig 6.2b: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House————————…..114
Fig 6.3c: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Benin House————————–115
Fig 6.4a: Floor Plan of a Family Compound Benin House————————….117
Fig 6.5: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House——————119
Fig 6.6b: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House—————-..122
Fig 6.7c: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Benin House—————-….123
Fig 6.8: Floor Plan of an Adapted Family Compound Benin House—————-…..125
Fig 6.9a: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Benin House——————.126  xiii
Fig 6.10b: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Benin House—————-…..127
Fig 6.11a: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Central Corridor House————…..129
Fig 6.12b: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Corridor House-Type————–…130
Fig 6.13: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House—————————-.132
Fig 6.14: Floor Plan of Semi-Detached Flats of Double Floor House—————-133
Fig 6.15: Floor Plan of a Modified Family-Compound Benin House—————-.135
Fig 6.16c: Floor Plan of a Face Me I Face You” Corridor House-Type————–….136
Fig 6.17: Floor Plan of A Semi-Detached Flats Single Floor House—————-…..137
Fig 6.18: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Flats Double Floor House—————-..138
Fig 6.19a: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House—————————-139
Fig 6.20b: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House—————————-140
Fig 6.21c: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House—————————-141
Fig 6.22b: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Flats Single Floor House—————-….143
Fig 6.23d: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House—————————-..144
Fig 6.24: Floor Plan of a Duplex House-Type———————————-…145
Fig 6.25: Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached House———————-147
Fig 6.26: Basement, Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached Villa House-Type—-..149
Fig 7.1a: Floor Plan of a Palace Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Palace Compound Courtyard House ———————-….190
Fig 7.1b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Palace Compound Courtyard House– 191 xiv
Fig 7.2a: Floor Plan of a Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Family Compound Courtyard House————————..169
Fig 7.2b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Family Compound Courtyard House ——————————————–170
Fig 7.3a: Floor Plan of an Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of an Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House—-….181
Fig 7.3b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Adapted Family Compound Courtyard House ——————————————–…..182
Fig 7.4a: Floor Plan of a Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House——.211
Fig 7.4b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability A Hybrid Family Compound Courtyard House ——————————————–…..212
Fig 7.5a: Floor Plan of a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)–…..224
Fig 7.5b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Common Corridor House (Face Me I Face You)—————————————-225
Fig 7.6a: Floor Plan of a Detached Bungalow House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Detached Bungalow House——————————–199
Fig 7.6b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Detached Bungalow House——…..199
Fig 7.7a: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Double Floor House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Semi-Detached Double Floor House ——————–.192
Fig 7.7b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Semi-Detached xv
Fig 7.8a: Floor Plan of a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House—-197
Fig 7.8b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Modified Family Compound Courtyard House————————————–..198
Fig 7.9a: Floor Plan of a Semi-Detached Single Floor House Socio-Spatial Analysis of A Semi-Detached Single Floor House——————–171
Fig 7.9b: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Semi-Detached Single Floor House—————————————————-.171
Fig 7.10a: Ground and Upper Floor Plan of a Detached Double Floor Villa House Socio-Spatial Analysis of a Detached Double Floor Villa House———-….226
Fig 7.10c: Justified Graph for Space Permeability a Detached Double Floor Villa House—————————————————-228

List of Tables 

Table 4.1: Calculated Sample Size (Total Residential Houses Across the Four Residential Zones Projected From 1991-2009 (52, 850)—————-.83
Table 5.1: Income per Annum of the Respondent———————————-91
Table 5.2: Occupation of the Respondent—————————————-92
Table 5.3: Age of the Respondent———————————————-93
Table 5.4: Gender of the Respondent——————————————…93
Table 5.5: Marital Status of Respondent—————————————-..94
Table 5.6: Number of Persons in the Household of the Respondent (Household Size)—-..95
Table 5.7: Educational Background of Respondent——————————–.96
Table 5.8: Tenure Status of Respondent—————————————-.97
Table 5.9: Religion of the Respondent——————————————.99
Table 5.10: Number of Household in the House—————————-….100
Table 6.1: Number of Selected Residential Houses in the Four Zone of Benin——–..102
Table 6.2: The House-Types As Identified During the Field Survey————104
Table 6.3: Tenure Composition———————————————-..151
Table 6.4: Number of Household in the House———————————-..152
Table 6.5: Length of Years of Stay in the House——————————–…154
Table 6.6: Age of the House——————————————–…..155
Table 6.7: Owner of the House——————————————–157
Table 7.1: Cooking and Eating (a Place for Meal Preparation)———————-.174
Table 7.2: Cooking and Eating (the Cooking Space Users)————————…175
Table 7.3: Cooking and Eating (the Usage of the Cooking Space)——————….175x
Table 7.4: Cooking and eating (Number of Households Sharing cooking space)——…177
Table 7.5: Cooking and eating (Space Allocated for Dish Washing)—————-….178
Table 7.6: Cooking and eating (Space for Family Eating)————————…..179
Table 7.7: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Storing Cooking Utensils)——–..184
Table 7.8: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Storing Raw Food Item)———-…185
Table 7.9: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Preservation of Water)———-…..186
Table 7.10: Storage of Household Goods (Space for Keeping Clothes)————–..187
Table 7.11: Storage of Household Goods (thoughts on the Arrangement of Space)—-…..188
Table 7.12: Sleeping Arrangement (Sleeping Space For Different Members of the Family)- ———————————…195
Table 7.13: Sleeping Arrangement (Relaxation Space for the Respondent Any Time of the Day) ——————————…196
Table 7.14: Personal Hygiene (Space for Family Bath) ————————–…..202
Table 7.15: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Family Bath)——————…..203
Table 7.16: Personal Hygiene (Number of Households Using the Space for Family Bath) —————————-…..204
Table 7.17: Personal Hygiene (Space for Washing Clothes by Household)————205
Table 7.18: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Washing Clothes)—————-206
Table 7.19: Personal Hygiene (Type of Toilet Being Used by Household)————…207
Table 7.20: Personal Hygiene (Location of Toilet Facility)————————208
Table 7.21: Personal Hygiene (Usage of Space for Toilet)————————..209

Table 7.22: Outdoor Space (Demarcation of Space Around the House)————–.215

Table 7.23: Outdoor Space (Use of External Space Around the House)————–.216

Table7.24: Outdoor Space (Engaging in Small Business at Home)——————.217 xi
Table 7.25: Outdoor Space (Type of Small Business at Home)——————–..218
Table 7.26: Visitors (Space for Receiving Visitor)——————–….219

Table 7.27: Visitors (Space for Receiving Visitor that Will Stay Overnight) ———-.220
Table 7.28: Visitors (Inconveniences of Visitor Staying Overnight) —————-…221
Table 7.29: Visitors (Possibility of Having Appropriate Space for Visitor
Staying Overnight) ——————————–222

Table 7.30: Worship (Performing of Religious Activities in the House) ————…..230

Table 7.31: Worship (Space for Performing Religious Activities in the House)——–.232

Table 7.32: Worship (Space for Worship in the House) ————————–233

Table 7.33: Worship (Existence of Such Space for Worship in the House)———-….234

Table 7.34: Worship (Reason for Non-Existence of Such Space for Worship
in the House)———————————-…235
Table 7.35: Worship (Importance of Space for Worship in the House)————….235
Table 7.36: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Core Zone———-….238
Table 7.37: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Intermediate Zone—-…..239
Table 7.38: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Sub-Urban Zone——241
Table7.39: Factors Responsible for Change and Continuity in Planned Estate Zone—-.243
Table 7.40: Factors that Determine the People‟s Response and Attitudes towards
Change in Domestic Spaces as well as Continuity in Domestic Space
across the Four Residential Zones in Benin——————–244

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