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CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN OF TRAFFIC LIGHT

DEDICATION

We dedicate this project work to Almighty God, the source of all knowledge, wisdom and understanding, for being there for us throughout the period of our study and to our lovely parents, Mr. and Mrs. Abido, and Sir & Lady Christopher Korugbo for their parental care, who has always been our inspiration.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to God Almighty, the source and supplier of all potential, the father of all creation for the privilege to go through our first degree without Him, nothing would have been accomplished. Our sincere and profound gratitude to our affectionate parents, Sir & Lady Korugbo, and Mr. & Mrs. Abido and our siblings for their moral, spiritual and financial support. May God bless you all.

Special thanks go to our gentle and impeccable supervisor, DR. C.E MOKOBIA, for his efforts, advice, fatherly love, corrections and knowledge in carrying out this research work.

Our appreciation also goes to the Head of Department Dr. ARTHUR EKPEKPO, all our lecturers and staff of the Department of Physics for their impartation and to all those who contributed to this work in one way or the other.

We will not fail to appreciate the efforts of our friends especially, Joshua, Favour and Osas, loved ones and all those who contributed to the success of this research work, we are indeed grateful. May God richly bless you all Amen.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       i

Dedication       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       ii

Acknowledgment     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iii

Table of content-      –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       iv

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION    –    –     –     –     –     –    –     –     –     –     –     -1

1.1 Overview-   –       –       –       –       –       –    –    –    –    –    –    -1

1.2 The Project- –    –        –       –     –    –    –       –     –       –       –       2

1.3 Advantages –      –       –       –       –       –     –     –     –     –     -2

1.4    Disadvantages   –    –       –       –       –       –       –       –     2-3

1.5    Future Scope   –       –       –       –       –       –       –     –    –   -3

CHAPTER TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW AND ANALYSIS-     –     –     –     –     –     -4

2.1 Literature Review     –      –       –       –       –       –       –       4-7

2.2   Project Analysis       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       8-10

2.3   Components used    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -10

CHAPTER THREE

METHODOLOGY-     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     -11

3.1 Software Used     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –     –    11-12

3.1.1 Proteus Professional starter Kit       –       –       –       –    -12-13

3.1.2 ARIES PCB Layout Software   –       –       –       –       –       -13

3.2 Hardware Required    –       –              –       –       –       –       -14

3.2.1 Preparation of Single Sided Pcb      –       –       –       –       -14

3.2.2 Layout –  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       14

3.2.3 Fabrication –   –       –       –       –       –       –       –    –     -14-15

3.2.4 Etching-  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -15

3.2.5 Drilling-  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -15

3.2.6 Soldering-       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       -15

3.2.7 PCB Layout-    –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –   16-17

3.3 Components Required-      –       –       –       –       –       –   17-35

CHAPTER FOUR

RESULT-  –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       38

4.2   Conclusion-     –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       37

CHAPTER FIVE

CONCLUSION- –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       –       39

Reference

Abstract

The control of traffic at road junction, which was done purely by human effort, proves to be inefficient owing to the increasing rate of both motorists as well as the complexity of road networks. This inadequacy brought about the use of….

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Overview:

Traffic lights are used to control the vehicular traffic. Now a day the road accident is increasing clay by day due to careless driving. Breaking of traffic rules. Insufficient traffic police and absence of traffic control system on the road. Everyone has different types of vehicles resulting in rise to the numbers of vehicles. Traffic light is the one of the vital public facilities plays an important role to the road user. Traffic signal light is used to control the movement of vehicles and passengers so that traffic can flow smoothly and safety. Traffic signals lights have been around for years and arc used to efficiently control traffic through intersection. Although traffic signal light are relatively simple, they are critical for ensuring the safety of the driving area. That’s why traffic lights are used to avoid traffic jams and accidents. The growing use of traffic lights attests to their effectiveness in directing traffic flow, reducing the number of accident.

  Figure1.1 traffic signal light

1.2 Project:

These projects consist of two IC 555 and 4017. IC 555 is connected as astable multivibrator which generates the square wave which is determined by resistor, capacitor and potentiometer. The square wave is generated at output pins of IC 555 is given to the IC 4017, because the output pin of IC 555 is connected to the input pin of IC 4017.

1.3 Advantages:

Traffic signals lights will improve the road safety and reduce congestion by providing the signals orderly through junctions. Traffic control lights are provided for traffic control on streets and highways. The traffic signals are cyclically displayed through a suitable timing and control mechanism. A traffic light has three colours which are RED, Yellow and green. Each colour has their own signs. The red light means the driver has to stop their driving. The yellow light indicates that driver has to ready to stop their ride. However if the driver is too close to the line that is not safe to stop, they have to continue driving. Green light gives the driver free license to drive through the intersection. Traffic light has proved to be an amazing way to slop the vehicular collision and control the traffic jams.
1.4 Disadvantages:
2. Failure of signal due to electric power failure.
2. Improper design and location of signal may lead to violation of control system.
3. Circuit diagram is complex so there are chances of short circuit.

1.5 Future Scope:

Nowadays there are so many researches that have been done in order to enhance the traffic light function to improve the movement of the vehicle flow on the road especially at the junctions. Based on observation and researches, the condition now is fixed time mode. It means the timer for all of roads are constant timer. It cannot detect a busy and non-busy road we use the traffic signal in which delay time is displayed on the signal this project is using Verilog HDL (hardware description language) to write coding for simulation and using gate logic to implement in hardware.

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