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CONSTRUCTION AND DESIGN
OF POLICE SIREN
(MAT NO HERE)
A PROJECT WORK SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, FACULTY OF SCIENCE, MICHIGAN UNIVERSITY,
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE AWARD OF B.Sc (HONS). DEGREE IN
(PHYSICS AND APPLIED ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING)
I certify that the project work was carried out by Ogodo Akpezi Alex and Samson Timipamo– Owei in the Department of Physics, Delta State University Abraka, Delta State.
Dr C.E. Mokobia Dr. Ekpekpo Arthur
Supervisor Head of Department
We dedicate this project work to the Almighty God; Jehovah for His mercies and loyal love that has continued to sustain us.
Thanks to God Almighty, the source and supplier of all potential, the father of all creation for the privilege to go through our first degree without Him, nothing would have been accomplished. Our sincere and profound gratitude to our affectionate parents, Sir & Lady Korugbo, and Mr. & Mrs. Abido and our siblings for their moral, spiritual and financial support. May God bless you all.
Special thanks go to our gentle and impeccable supervisor, DR. C.E MOKOBIA, for his efforts, advice, fatherly love, corrections and knowledge in carrying out this research work.
Our appreciation also goes to the Head of Department Dr. ARTHUR EKPEKPO, all our lecturers and staff of the Department of Physics for their impartation and to all those who contributed to this work in one way or the other.
We will not fail to appreciate the efforts of our friends especially, Joshua, Favour and Osas, loved ones and all those who contributed to the success of this research work, we are indeed grateful. May God richly bless you all Amen.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE PAGE ==================================================i
TABLE OF CONTENTS =========================================iv-vi
CHARTER ONE ========================================1
INTRODUCTION ======================================= 1
1.1Overview =========================================== 1-2
1.2Advantage ========================================== 3
1.3Future or scope ====================================== 3-4-5
CHAPTER TWO ================================================ 6
2.1 Literature Review =========================================== 6-7
2.2 Review ==================================================== 7-8
2.3 History ==================================================== 9-10
3.1 Circuit Diagram ============================================= 10
3.2 Working =================================================== 11
3.3 List of Components ========================================== 12
3.4 Table of Components ======================================== 12
CHAPTER FOUR ======================================== 13
4.1 Components Used =====================================13-17
4.1.1 Timer IC 555 =======================================13-14
4.1.2 LDR =====================================================15
LDR Structure and Working ======================================16
4.1.3 RESISTORS ===============================================16-19
4.1.4 IC 7805 ================================================== 19-20
4.1.5 IC TDA 2002 ============================================== 20
4.1.6 Electrolytic Capacitor ======================================= 21
4.2 Software used ============================================== 21
4.2.1 Advantages of PCB over normal wiring ========================= 22
4.2.2 Disadvantages of PCB ======================================= 22
4.2.3 About Proteus Simulator ==================================== 23-24
4.2.4 Proteus Professional starter Kit ============================== 24-25
4.3 HARDWARE REQUIRED ======================================= 26
1. PREPARATION OF SINGLE SIDED PCB ============================= 26
2. LAYOUT ===================================================== 26
3. FABRICATION ================================================ 26
4. ETCHING ==================================================== 27
6. SOLDERING ================================================== 27
4.4 PCB LAYOUT ================================================ 28
Hardware Design and Simulation ================================== 28
Input voltage Limiting ========================================== 28 -29
AC/DC Conversion ============================================== 29
Operation ===================================================== 29
CHAPTER FIVE ================================================== 30
Result and Conclusion =====================================30-32
Result ================================================== 31
Conclusion ============================================= 31-32
A siren is a loud noise making device. Civil defense sirens are mounted in fixed locations and used to warn of natural disasters or attacks. Sirens are used on emergency service vehicles such as ambulance, police cars and fire trucks. There are two general types of siren:
Many fire sirens (used for calling the volunteer fire fighters) serve double duty astornado or civil defense sirens, alerting an entire community of impending danger. Most fire sirens are either mounted on the roof of a fire station, or on a pole next to the fire station. Fire sirens can also be mounted on or near government buildings, on tall structures such as water towers as well as in systems, where several sirens are distributed around a town for better sound coverage. Most fire sirens are single tone and mechanically driven by electric motors with a rotor attached to the shaft. Some newer sirens are electronically driven by speakers. Though, these are not as common.
Fire sirens are often called “fire whistles”, “fire alarms”, or “fire horns.” Although there is no standard signaling of fire sirens, some utilize codes to inform fire fighters of the location of the fire. Civil defence sirens pulling double duty as a fire siren often can produce an alternating “hi-b” signal (similar to a British police car) as the fire signal, or a slow wail (typically 3x) as to not confuse the public with the standard civil defense signals of alert (steady tone) and attack (fast wavering tone). Fire sirens are often blasted once a day at noon and are also called “noon sirens” or ‘noon whistles”.
Pneumatic Siren consists of a rotating disk with holes in it such that the material between the holes interrupts a flow of air from fixed holes on the outside of the unit. As the holes in the rotating disk alternately prevent and allow air to flow it results on alternating compressed and rarefied air pressure i.e. sound. It consumes large amount of energy.
Electronic Siren incorporate circuits such as oscillators, modulators and amplifiers it synthesize a selected tone which is played through external speakers. It is not unusual especially in the case of modern engines, to see an emergency vehicle equipped with both types of siren.
1.2 PROJECT OBJECTIVE
The main objective of this project is to implement Electronic Siren in both the software and hardware version. We are going to learn the PCB designing, Proteus software handling in an effective manner. At the end of this project student will be able to learn all these things. Electronic Siren is basically high-performance sound signal electronic amplifiers. These siren works with substantially higher outputs and specific demand are placed on them in terms of desired extreme reliability and different methods of control on them. Moreover control infrastructure must also be reliable and usually two independent control channels are required.
The loudspeakers for these amplifiers are placed in specially- designed sound battles and they play the signals stored in the siren’s digital memory or signals fed to the siren from external sources.
1.3 FUTURE SCOPE
It is possible to add an external signal source with these devices. Moreover it provides enhanced automatic testing. It is employed at user friendly level easily. In industry it will be a great advantage to the people.
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