COMPLETE SCHOOL PROJECT TOPICS & MATERIALS :
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1.1 Background of the study
When we attempt to define the word politics, we have a lot of trouble. There is no one legally recognized definition of politics; rather, there are several. In other words, the phrase may be interpreted in a variety of ways that are both acceptable and legal. As a result, the word “politics” has a lot of baggage. Even well-respected experts can’t agree on what the topic is. Politics, unlike the scientific sciences, lacks a standard technical vocabulary, appropriate and accurate terminology, and terms with well-defined meanings. When a mathematician talks about a logarithm, a chemist talks about a chain reaction, and a physicist talks about a molecule, their listeners understand what they’re talking about. When a political scientist talks about socialism, conservatism, liberalism, or politics, everyone in his audience assigns their own personal interpretation to such terms; they have differing viewpoints, making it impossible to reach a consensus. (Miller,1962) Furthermore, as time passes, new meanings of politics develop, resulting in the eventual obliteration of any exact definition of the word politics. Politics is defined differently at different times and in different places. For example, throughout the eighteenth century, business and commercial concerns were not seen as genuine political spheres as they are now. Politics may be described in a variety of ways, including the exercise of power, the exercise of authority, collective decision-making, the distribution of limited resources, deceit and manipulation, and so on. Heywood, 1997
According to Abiola et al. (2003), women account for more than half of the world’s population and play an important role in social evolution. Mother, producer, house manager, community organizer, and socio-cultural and political activists are five important responsibilities that women play in most cultures. The last of these positions has been fueled by women’s movements in response to past gender discrimination and injustice. Gender roles were separated between the male and female sexes prior to the development of these movements. These responsibilities may be divided into two categories: productive and reproductive gender roles. Whereas productive gender roles were mostly linked with men, reproductive gender roles were only associated with women. This social reality was firmly entrenched in global cultures’ cultural ideas and values. “From the most egalitarian cultures to those with the most pronounced sexual inequality, males are the center of cultural value. Some activities are always regarded as solely or mostly male-dominated, and therefore disproportionately and ethically significant” (Rosaldo and Lamphere, 1974). ‘As a result, women have long been subjected to different kinds of gender discrimination, inequality, and exclusion, particularly in the political arena.’ This system of ideas, cultural values, and conventions has many consequences, including the effort to alleviate/end gender discrimination. These social ideas, as well as ethnic and, in the majority of cases, religious teachings and customs, have become self-fulfilling. Sex role socialization transforms biological sexes into socially different genders by assigning them unique and frequently unequal job and political roles – economists call this the sexual division of labor. This idea is fundamental to the Nigerian political system, which assigns sexes to distinct complimentary duties, and is now ingrained in the labor market and political scene.
1.2 Statement of research problem
Over the years, there have been heated discussions over the hindrances to women’s involvement in Nigerian politics. Some believe that women’s perceptions of themselves as lesser sexes are social constructions resulting from societal value, norms, and beliefs that have overlooked their valuable contributions and put them in a subservient position to males in the political system. However, patriarchal system, lack of financial support, discriminatory traditions and regulations, religious beliefs, and insufficient awareness of written and unwritten rules safeguarding women’s political rights have all been cited as barriers to women’s involvement in Nigeria politics. The research will examine the hindrances to women’s political participation in Nigeria within this background.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The primary objective of the study is as follows
l To find out hindrances to women participation in Nigeria politics
l To find out reasons for women political participation in Nigeria
l To find out if the hindrances to women participation in politics can be removed
l To find out how to improve the participation of women in Nigeria politics
1.4 Research hypothesis
H01:There are no hindrances to women participation in Nigeria politics
HA1:There are hindrances to women participation in Nigeria politics
H02: There can not be an improvement in the participation of women in Nigeria politics
HA2: There can be an improvement in the participation of women in Nigeria politics
1.5 Significance of the study
The significance of this study cannot be underestimated as:
l This study will examine an analysis of hindrances to women political participation in Nigeria
l The findings of this research work will undoubtedly provide the much needed information to government organizations, leaders of political parties, and academia.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will examine an analysis of hindrances to women political participation in Nigeria. Hence this study is delimited to women in Kano state
1.7 Limitations of the study
This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:
just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data
Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires
Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher
1.8 Operational definition of terms
Analysis: detailed examination of the elements or structure of something.
Hindrances: a thing that provides resistance, delay, or obstruction to something or someone.
Political participation: a broad range of activities through which people develop and express their opinions on the world and how it is governed, and try to take part in and shape the decisions that affect their lives.
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